are called muscle fibers.
composes of the bulk of the heart.
Cardiac and voluntary muscles
are nonstraited muscle cells.
Smooth muscles or involuntary muscles form an important part of blood vessel walls and of many hollow internal,
such as arteries, the gut, urethra, and ureters.
Because of its location, it is called
The muscle's attachment to this more stationary bone is called
Its attachment is more movable bone is called
the muscle's insertions.
anchor muscles firmly to bones.
like bursae,facilitate body movement.
Attach muscles to bone at the origin and the insertion site.
consistists of elongated contractile cells, or muscles fibers.
Calcium and ATP
are needed for muscle contraction.
There are three primary functions of the muscular system:
movement, posture or muscle tone, heat production.
All the muscles contracting simultaneously, the one that is mainly responsible for producing a particular movement is called
the prime mover for that movement.
When antagonist muscles contract, they produce movement opposite to that of the
prime movers and their synergist.
Both the antagonist and the prime mover are
If the prime movement causes extension the the
antagonist causes flexion.
We are able to maintain our body position because of a specific type of skeletal muscle contraction called
Muscle tone maintain
Any decrease below normal,a condition called
Hypothermia, which causes shivering.
The contraction of muscle fibers produces
most of the heat that required to maintain body temperature.
Energy required to produce a muscle contraction is
obtained from ATP.
When oxygen supplies run low,
the muscle cells switch to a type of energy conversion that do not require oxygen.
This process produces lactic acid that may result in
a burning sensation in muscle during exercise.
Oxygen debt describes
the continued increased metabolism that must occur in a cell to remove excess lactic acid that accumulates during prolonged exercise.
The depleted energy reserves are
are labored breathing after cessation of exercise is required.
Can be seen in isolated muscle during research, but play a minimal role in normal muscle activity.
produces movement ofa joint.ex: lifting.
when the muscle contracts and no movement results. ex: like trying to lift something heavy and nothing results from it.
Increase in muscle size called
Can be enhanced by strenght training.
Often called aerobic training, does not usually result in muscle hypertrophy.
Have larger muscle cells.
Aerobic activities such as running, and bicycling,
increases the number of blood vessels in a muscle without increasing its size.
Causes an increase in the numbers of mitochondria in muscle fibers.
The main muscle used in breathing.
bending of the elbow.
IM injection site.
Movements are the opposite of flexions.
Means moving a part away from the midline of the body.
moving a part toward the midline.
Shaking your head no.
Dorsiflexion and plantar flexion
refers to ankle movements.
dorsum,or top moving the foot upward.
Bottom of the foot is directed downward.
injuries to skeletal muscles resulting from over-exertion or trauma .
Muscle strains are characterized by
muscle pain, myalgia.
if an injury occurs in the area of a joint and a ligament is damaged.
Any muscle inflammation, including that caused by a muscle strain.
Inflammation of a tendon.
inherited disorder of genetic diseases characterized by atrophy (wasting) of skeletal muscle tissues.
most common form of muscular dystrophy.
Missing from muscle cells.
Cause by missing gene in the X chromosomes.
A chronic disease characterized by muscle weakness,especially in the face and throat. It's also known as an autoimmune disease.