Combo with Unit 8 and 3 others

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Learning PSychology 3011

A fractional anticipatory goal response is most firmly connect to the ____?

Goal stimulus

The fact that organisms explore and manipulate____?

Provides little difficulty for drive theorists

____ is the product of learning and motivation

Excitatory reaction potential

Hull proposed that the world affecting us be represented as a sequence of ____?

Stimuli

Watson would have objected most strongly to hull use of ____?

Intervening variables

The phenomenon of specific hunger seemed to richter to be strong evidence for the fundamental importance of _____?

Biological drive

The reason we do not show full blown goal responses when we begin a familiar sequence of behavior is that extinction____?

eliminates them

The dissipation of inhibition over time was used by hull to explain____

reminiscence

Hull believed that we like other organisms, consits of muscle, blood, bone, nerves, and visceral organs. He believed that being human we also come with _____?

nothing else

Henry murrys psychogenic and viscernegentic needs _____?

Correspond to hulls secondary and primary drives, respectivly

Hull believed that habits are formed____?

through the action of the law of effect

For hull the most convincing kind of explanation is one that can be _____?

expressed in the workings of a machine

A fractional anticipatory goal response is most firmly connected to _____?

the goal stimulus

Conceptually there is little difference between unhappiness and _____?

the electron

For hull reinforcment always involves___?

reduction of a need

Hulls opinion on innate reflexive behaviors was that____?

they are adaptive

According to hull, adressing envelops or doing pushups causes a gradual increase in _____?

Reactive inhibition

As we reread a passeage of poetry in order to memorize it, we add to what is already learned ____?

In progressively smaller increments

When several response tendencies compete, the results is usually___?

dominance by the one with the higher momentary excitatory reaction potential

Hulls emphasis on the responses of muscles and glans and his interest in models in the form of machines shows that he was a____?

Molar theorist

In Hulls model of foresight, the world sequence is neccesary at first, ____?

but than is superfious

Hulls term that referred to a negative habit___?

Conditioned inhibition

As training continues, the quantitiy (M-SHr) __?

gradually decreases

We turn away from walking into a bears den. This kind of foresign of probable consequences is____?

probably the effect of chaining

According to pragmatic philosophy, what we do to really know a large room or a hammer illustrates____?

that knowledge is largely a part of our reactions

Thirst is an example of ____?

a typical intervening variable

Hulls Monday night group used the term reciprical habit complex to refer to___?

Behavior of a psychologist and patient

Interestingly the body doe not initiate corrective action in response to ____?

Oxygen deprivation

In hulls initiatial system____?

The amount of need reducing occuring on a given trial directly influence the size of the increase in habit strength that takes place on a given trial

Hulls approach to learning theory and research is called____?

Hypothetico-deductive methods

Hulls of evidence testing his corollaries and theorems showed that___?

most were found to be valid

Visuals and other afterimages are___?

included in hulls early postulates

The dissipation of inhibition overtime was used by hull to explain___?

reminiscence

Anticipation was explained by hull as___?

the occurrence of a fractional goal response

In Hulls system one begins with clearly stated fundamental principles called___?

Postulates

A bodily condition, left unattended, is lifethreatening is called_____?

A primary need

For hull knowledge may depend a large part on___?

muscle spindles and golgi tendon organs

Hulls concept of drive stimulus renders his view of motivation most similar to that of ____?

Guthries

If we accelerate as we approach a goal, Hull would suggest that it is due to ____?

Sensory feedback from functional goal responses

Sometimes a football team has the skill to win, but is not up for the game. This illustrates the principles in the experiments of _____?

Penn and williams

unconscious inference

automatic perceptual processes dependent on cues and learning; Helmholtz argued that we form expectancies about the commonplace world that we have no idea this is occurring; we see objects in the distance and it seems that we immediately "see" the distance; actually, we are relying on cues comin gtom eye muscles and from our past experience of distant objects to guide us; however, such sensations become so habitual that we do not notice them

structuralism

a school of psychology about the organization of the mind; Titchener; believed that the first priority was the analysis of the structure of consciousness through the method of introspection

mental chemistry

the notion that "ideas" combine to create new mental compounds; name given by John Stuart Mill to his theory of association; Mill believed that ideas combine as do chemicals, so that the whole is not simply the sum of the parts

functionalism

a school of psychology; stresses adaptive activity; one of the schools of psychology prevalent at the turn of the century; the functionalists stresses adaptive activity rather than the analysis of consciousness into static elements, as practiced by structuralists

similarity

the basic principle of associationism involving shared elements; used by empiricists; is often defined in terms of shared elements; thus, an apple is more similar to an orange than to an automobile; in most cases, we are unable to explain perceived similarity

epistemology

the study of the nature and origin of knowledge; the study of nature and origin of knowledge; the history of psychology is linked with the history of epistemology

statics

mind seen as set of "mental objects," i.e., images, thoughts, etc.; as used here, the view that psychological phenomena are best cast in terms of things, such as images, ideas, and motives, rather than in terms of activities

hypothetical construct

a "made up" thing, place, or process to explain a real phenomenon

parsimony

the fewer the assumptions, the better the theory

rationalism

the belief in innate knowledge or powers of reasoning; the belief that we are born with innate knowledge or powers of reason that allow us to recognize

Occam's Razor

explanatory entities should be kept to a minimum

dynamics

activities and processes; the opposite of statics

successive associations

Mill's term for a serial sequence of associated elements; sensations and ideas that are connected because they occurred previously at the same time; such things are often objects, since an object provides a set of sensations simultaneously

associationism

mind as network of connected ideas, sensations, etc.; a view that stresses the analysis of experience into elements (sensations, ideas, and so on) and proposes laws of association to account for the ways in which these elements are joined; in extreme form (e.g., Hume), this view holds that all of our experience and knowledge consists only of associated elements

anthropomorphism

attributing human characteristics to things and animals

synchronous associations

Mill's term for an amalgam of simultaneously associated elements

empiricism

the doctrine that all knowledge comes from experience; the doctrine that holds that all knowledge comes from the senses - that we are born with senses but with no innate ideas

sensation

the experience or quality produced by a sensory nerve; the experience or quality produced by a sensory nerve; some psychologists, including Titchener, consider the basic irreducible or analyzable qualities of sensation to be the basic elements of experience

Morgan's Canon

psychological explanations should be as simple as possible

stimulus error

a term coined by Titchener to refer to faulty introspection; if a subject describes experience in terms of what he or she believes to be the stimulus for the experience, that person has committed the stimulus error; for example, we may describe a table seen from an angle as rectangular, although the sensation we experience shows it to be trapezoidal

act psychology

Brentano: mind conceived as a "continuous flow of activity," not as a "thing"; name given to the view of Franz Brentano, who opposed Wundt's analysis of consciousness; Brentano argued that there is really no static "content" of consciousness; experience is made up of activities, not sensations and ideas

introspection

looking inward to examine one's consciousness; name given to the practice of examining one's consciousness

phenomenology

what one takes to be the nature of one's own experience; For Titchener this was the sensation, image, and affect; for the Gestalts it was the structured whole; also has a more technical meaning, referring to philosophies that stress immediate experience and that reject the representative theory of perception

intervening variable

a summary word or term for a lawful cause-effect relationship

behaviorism

subject matter of psychology is activity, "what people do," etc.; a view that holds that the subject matter of psychology may best be viewed as activity (behavior), rather than as "things" or structures; according to behaviorists, we do not have thoughts or images, but we do think and imagine; further, behavior is considered as significant in itself; a behaviorist does not treat what we do as the result of some underlying mechanisms, such as biological centers or repressed wishes

Herbert Spencer

known for espousing "evolutionary associationism"

Hermann von Helmholtz

proposed a theory of unconscious inference

Kenneth MacCorquodale

with Meehl, wrote a classic critique of psychological constructs

Conwy Lloyd-Morgan

proposed a "canon" advocating conservative interpretations

Paul Meehl

with MacCorquodale, wrote a classic critique of psychological constructs

George J. Romanes

analyzed animals "minds" via introspection by analogy

Edward Titchener

headed the structuralist school of psychology

Charles Darwin

articulated the theory of evolution

Wilhelm Wundt

founded the first psychology laboratory, Leipzig 1879

James Mill

the first show how, in principle, associationism explains "mind"

Franz Brentano

originated act psychology

William James

important 19th century Harvard philosopher and psychologist

John Dewey

pragmatist educator; opposed analysis into static elements

James Angell

spelled out main tenets of "functionalism"

assimilation

this refers to the influence of a mass of associations on one of its member elements and vice versa; for example, the word "cold" brings to mind snow, quiet, blankets, and so on; this ability of one element (cold) to call up a whole complex is an instance of assimilation; similarly, presentation of the mass, such as in a picture of a wintry scene, may influence a present thought, by making us shiver; the law of assimilation, a principle of association used by Wundt and may others, is also known as redintegration

beschreibung

name given to the method of studying conscious experience used by Wundt; carefully trained observers verbally report their "content" of consciousness when presented with simple forms of stimulation; the same method was used by many other early psychologists, although it dropped from favor after Kulpe showed its grave limitations

complication

term used by many early psychologists to refer to compound associations made of elements from different senses; a cold, wet stone is an instance of complication, including visual, tactile, and thermal elements

context theory

explanation of perception and meaning proposed by Berkeley and adopted by others - notably Titchener, in his core/context theory; percepts are reducible to a context of elements; distance is a combination of sensations from the eye muscles and the limbs; meaning is no more than the context of associated ideas connected to a core

dynamics

activities and processes (as opposed to statics, which are images, ideas, motives, and son on)

einstellung

the effect of preparation, expectancy, or "set" on the performance of mental and manual activities; was first stressed by Kulpe and the Wurzburg School

fusion

Wundt's law of association referring to compounds not analyzable to elements

psychic resultants

1 of 3 main forms of order in mental life proposed by Wundt; are those forms of association in which the sum of the elements is less than the whole; the laws of fusion, assimilation, and complication are examples

multiple response

Thorndike's principle that, at first, many responses may occur; one of Thorndike's subsidiary laws; refers to the behaviors that an individual brings to a learning situation and that determine what behaviors will occur

law of effect

Thorndike's law on how consequences affect S-R connections; Thorndike's doctrine that held that responses were connected to or disconnected from situations depending upon the effect produced by the response

discipline method

drilling on material to develop stronger mental faculty; method of education in which drill exercises are used to develop a general mental faculty; for example, the memorizing of poetry was used to develop the general faculty of memory

annoyer

Thorndike's term for effects that weaken S-R connections; Thorndike's term for a punisher; a state of affairs that stamps out the associations between a situation and a response; in Thorndike's pre-1930 theory, a response followed by this will be less likely to occur in that situation in the future

connectionism

Thorndike's term for his theory of learning; learning consists of the connecting of stimuli and responses

associative shifting

Thorndike's term for S-R learning via contiguity alone; one of Thorndike's subsidiary laws corresponding to what was later called classical conditioning

mentalism

the belief that nonphysical mind events cause physical events; the belief that mental phenomena are different in kind from physical phenomena and that mental events may cause physical events

stamping in or out

term used by Thorndike to describe the automatic connecting (or disconnecting) or S-R bonds by effects

original behavior series

Thorndike: an innate sequence of responses that "satisfies"; Thorndike's term for a sequence of activities that are determined innately and that constitute satisfaction when completed

law of exercise

Thorndike's law on how mere activity affects S-R connections; Thorndike's pre-1929 principle that referred to the connecting of a response and a situation simply because they frequently occurred together

hedonism

the view that pleasure and pain govern behavior; the ancient doctrine popularized in British empiricism, which assumes that pleasure and pain are essential determinants of conduct

a classic view that behavior is governed by pleasure and pain; the doctrine that our conduct is regulated largely by pleasure and pain

mechanism

explanations that do not appeal to supernatural forces or agents; assumption that explanations must not refer to outside agents, such as demons or life forces

selecting and connecting

only the Rs that produce satisfiers become bonded to Ss; term used by Thorndike to describe his theory; responses are selected by the fact that they produce satisfiers, which also connect them to the situation in which they occurred

satisfier

Thorndike: a state of affairs that connects preceding S-R; a state of affairs that acts to connect a response with the situation in which it occurred and thus form and S-R bond; any more precise definition of a satisfier becomes difficult

Rene Descartes

said "I think, therefore I am"

learning sets

Harlow's term for "learning to learn"

negative law of effect

the part of Thorndike's theory about the effects of annoyers; the portion of the pre-1929 law of effect that refers to the effect of annoyers, or punishers

piecemeal activity

Thorndike: responding is only to "pieces" of the whole situation; one of Thorndike's subsidiary laws, which referred to the selective nature of perception; we react only to a small subset of the elements of a situation

response by analogy

Thorndike's principle of "transfer" of learning to new situations; Thorndike's principle of transfer; we respond to a new situation in the same way that we responded to similar situations in the past

Edward L. Thorndike

originated first Stimulus-Response (S-R) reinforcement theory

conduction unit

Thorndike's theoretical neural mechanism of Law of Effect; used by Thorndike to illustrate law of readiness; depending upon its readiness to fire, the firing or not firing of this constitutes satisfaction or annoyance

Harry Harlow

UW prof; demonstrated "learning sets" and "insight" in monkeys

Wolfgang Kohler

pioneer in Gestalt psychology; stressed role of insight in learning

Law of readiness

Thorndike's law on what enables reinforcers and punishers; also called the law of instinct; Thorndike's law refers to the conditions that determine satisfaction and annoyance; present stimuli produce a readiness for certain types of consequences

successful operation

Thorndike: the unimpeded completion of an original behavior series; term used by Thorndike to specify the conditions for satisfaction; refers to the unimpeded completion of an original behavior series

faculties

mental powers that come into play when the mind does work; mental powers that act semiautonomously; attention, memory, judgement, perception, and imagery are often proposed as these

attitudes/dispositions/preadjustments/sets

four terms treated as synonymous and referring to the effect of preparation of the learner on the effectiveness of satisfiers and annoyers, as weel as on other effects of a new situation on performance

insight

term used by Kohler to describe the sudden solutions to problems he observed in his primate subjects; insight involves the apprehension of relationships in a problem situation, which Kohler contrasted with "blind fumbling" and the action of the law of effect; this was the view of Thorndike's theory; readers of Kohler's accounts of insight in apes may disagree with his interpretations; like other Gestalt psychologists, Kohler down played the effects of experience in promoting insight; in 1959 he said that, although he had been confused on the issue in the past, he realized that only sudden solutions without prior experience represented true instances of insight; thus defined, insight may be a relatively rare event

problem box

a crude device used by Thorndike and other animal researchers to study problem solving; typically, a subject placed in such a box could escape by operating a release mechanism, such as a lever or a pull cord

aversive

category of UCSs; things harmful or not beneficial to learner; this adjective describes stimuli that we judge to be unpleasant, dangerous, or otherwise not beneficial for the organism

conditioned suppression

reduced instrumental response rate in presence of a Pavlovian CS; procedure used to investigate the inhibitory and/or aversive properties of stimuli; for example, a stimulus previously paired with shock may be presented while subjects are bar pressing or proof reading; if the rate of the latter performances is decreased during the presentation, the added stimulus is judged inhibitory

extinction below zero

reduced spontaneous recovery following greatly extended extinction

Ivan Petrovich Pavlov

first Russian Nobel laureate; originated important conditioning method

excitatory conditioning

CS evokes CR activity because of previous CS-UCS pairings; classical conditioning in which a CS reliably predicts the occurrence of a UCS; this is the opposite of inhibitory conditioning, in which the appearance of the CS means that the UCS is not coming

algebraic summation

combining excitatory and inhibitory CSs to assess CR magnitude; method used by Pavlov to demonstrate the inhibitory and excitatory properties of CSs by pairing them with other CSs; For example, an inhibitory CS introduced along with another CS will cause a decrease in responding to the latter; a positive CS presented with another positive CS should produce a response greater than that to either of the individual stimuli; this method also was used by Rescorla

Sir Charles Sherrington

English physiologist and Nobel laureate; did early studies of spinal reflexes

classical conditioning

Pavlov's training procedure; learning via pairing of stimuli; procedure whereby 2 elicitors are paired in such a way that the weaker precedes the stronger by a second or more (ideally) and so that the weaker stimulus reliably predicts the stronger; conditioning is said to occur when the weaker stimulus produces a response similar to that produced by the stronger; for example, the taste of coffee, associated, with the effects of caffeine, may actually perk us up

delayed conditioning

standard Pavlovian procedure; CS onset precedes UCS onset; classical conditioning procedure in which the CS is presented, remains present, and is later followed by the UCS; with training, responding decreases during the early part of the delay interval

extinction

CS alone; disappearance of CR when CS is no longer followed by UCS; the decrease and eventual disappearance of a CR, which happens when the CS is repeatably presented without a UCS; Pavlov believed that this brought about the inhibition of the CR

differentiation

different CRs to different CSs due to CSs paired with difference UCSs; Pavlov's term for discrimination formation; it includes both the discriminating of stimuli and the associating of UCSs with appropriate stimuli

acquisition

pairing of CS with UCS; development of CR to CS; the development of an ever-stronger and more reliable conditioned response (CR) through conditioning

disinhibition

recovery of inhibited response when a novel stimulus occurs; the release from inhibition produced by a new stimulus, such as a hand clap or a trumpet blare; this is evidenced by the appearance of responding in the presence of an inhibitory

Robert Rescorla

prominent contemporary "association learning" researcher of U of Penn

external inhibition

disruption of CR performance by occurrence of novel event; suppression of a CR produced by introduction of a stimulus that produces a competing response; for example, conditioned salivation by a dog may be disrupted if the dog's name is suddenly called in a loud voice

concentration

Theoretical Pavlovian process; highly focused cerebral activity; process that occurs during classical conditioning, specifically during discrimination learning; early and late in training, excitation and inhibition associated with CS+ and CS- irradiate (spread); midway in training, excitation and inhibition concentrate, or remain close to their respective brain centers; is the opposite of irradiation

backward conditioning

reverse of delayed conditioning; UCS first, then CS; a conditioning procedure in which the UCS precedes the CS; this was formerly thought to lead to no conditioning, but it has been recognized as the chief means for producing inhibitory conditioning

inhibition

one of Pavlov's fundamental brain processes; reduced activity; basic neural process which Pavlov believed worked with excitation to regulate the workings of the brain; For Pavlov, inhibition meant the suppression of neural activity, directly opposing the activation produced by excitation; it is known that excitation and this are characteristics of neural activity

appetitive

category of UCSs; things that are beneficial to learner; this adjective describes stimuli that we judge to be pleasant, adaptive, or otherwise beneficial for the organism

experimental neurosis

bizarre behavior brought on by insoluable Pavlovian differentiation; bizarre behavior brought on by insoluable problem after experience with similar problems that were soluble; Pavlov believed that disruption of normal excitation and inhibition in the brain accounted for experimental neurosis

conditioned stimulus (CS)

originally neutral stimulus that comes to evoke CR; weak elicitor that is paired with a stronger elicitor in such a way as to acquire the power to evoke the response originally evoked by the stronger elicitor (UCS)

conditioned response (CR)

the "new" response to CS in Pavlovian conditioning; response evoked by a CS after pairing in a specific way with a UCS; the CR resembles the response to the UCS, not the original response to the CS; for example, the sight of a cut onion may produce a CR secretion of tears

unconditioned reflex

natural, unlearned UCS-UCR combinations; inborn reactions to stimuli; reflex behaviors that do not depend on the conditions of our experience; unconditioned reflexes are those reactive behaviors with which we are born

second-order conditioning

a CR and a CS due to its having been paired with a previously trained CS

inhibition of delay

the conspicuous absence of CR during the early part of a long-duration CS; a decrease in responding that occurs during the early part of the delay period during delayed conditioning; Pavlov believed that this was due to the fact that time acted as a CS, and, since that time just after the onset of the CS was never accompanied by the UCS, it became inhibitory; a hand clap could restore responding during this period, showing the disinhibition of inhibition of delay

semantic generalization

generalization of a CR to different-sounding words that mean the same

instrumental conditioning

Thorndike's procedure; learner's behavior produces result or "effect"; learning that depends on the consequences of responses; the procedure is similar in some respects to classical conditioning; also known as operant learning

truly random control

a comparison group suggested by Rescorla in 1967 as the only appropriate control procedure for classical conditioning; CS and UCS occur randomly; this procedure also assumes a definition of conditioning as a contingent relation between the CS and the UCS; the CS must act as a reliable predictor; the control procedure defines the absence of classical conditioning by presenting the CS and the UCS randomly, so that occurrence of the CS may mean that the UCS is coming or that it is not; the CS predicts nothing

pseudoconditioning

a "CR-like" response to a CS, but not due to pairing of CS with UCS; apparent CRs produced because the UCS has rendered the subject overly reactive to stimuli in general; this occurs especially with strong, noxious stimuli, such as strong electric shock; thus, if the CR is a change in heart rate and the UCS is powerful shock, a variety of stimuli other than the CS may produce heart rate change, and responses that occur to the CS therefore cannot be certified as true CRs

psychosomatic illness

bodily illness due to psychological learning rather than physical causes (germ, etc.); term referring to bodily illness produced by the mind; may be as fatal as other illnesses and are almost surely due to classical conditioning, at least in large part; because the distinction between mind and body is o questionable worth, the term psychosomatic may be obsolete

spontaneous recovery

reappearance of extinguished CR to CS after a period of no further CSs; name given to the reappearance of a CR that had been extinguished earlier; since the effect occurred only after a period of time had passed since extinction, Pavlov suggested that this was evidence for the accumulation of inhibition during extinction and its dissipation

omission procedure

if CR occurs to CS, UCS is not presented; test for "Law of Effect"; experimental procedure in which a CS is presented and a UCS thereafter, unless a CR occurred to the CS; thus, the sight of water might be followed by a drink of water, as long as no salvation occurred when the sight of water appeared Omission training was first used to determine whether some CRs are affected by their consequences; if a CR occurs whether it prevents a UCS or not then it is a true CR

semantic conditioning

Pavlovian conditioning to the "meaning" of a word as the CS

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