MSA Science Vocab Physical Science

62 terms by elizabethphillips

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Acceleration

the rate at which velocity changes, an object accelerates if its speed changes, if its direction changes, or if both change

Amplitude

the maximum distance a wave vibrates from its rest position

Chemical change

a change that occurs when one or more substances are changed into entirely new substances with different properties

Chemical energy

the energy of a compound that changes as its atoms are rearranged to form a new compound; chemical energy is a form of potential energy

Chemical property

a property of matter that describes a substance based on its ability to change into a new substance with different properties

Chemical reaction

the process by which one or more substances undergo change to produce one or more different substances

Compound

a pure substance composed of two or more elements that are chemically combined

Conduction

the transfer of thermal energy from one substance to another through direct contact; conduction can also occur within a substance

Convection

a transfer of thermal energy by the movement of liquid or gas

Density

the amount of matter in a given space, mass per unit volume

Electric circuit

a complete, closed path through which electric charges flow

Electricity

energy made available by the flow of electric charge through a conductor

Element

a pure substance that cannot be separated or broken down into simpler substances by physical or chemical means

Energy

the ability to do work

Expand

become larger in size or volume or quantity

Force

a push or a pull; all forces have both size and direction

Frequency

the number of waves produced in a given amount of time

Friction

a force that opposes motion between 2 surfaces that are touching

Gravitational

energy due to an objects position above the Earth's surface

Gravity

a force of attraction between objects that is due to their masses

Heat

the transfer of energy between objects that are at different temperatures

Inertia

the tendency of all objects to resist any change in motion

Kinetic energy

the energy of motion; depends on speed and mass

Light

a type of energy that travels as an electromagnetic wave

Longitudinal wave

a wave in which the particles of the medium vibrate back and forth along the path that the wave travels

Magnetic

having the properties of a magnet

Magnetic field

the region around a magnet in which magnetic forces can act

Malleability

the ability of a substance to be pounded into thin sheets

Mass

the amount of matter something is made of

Mass number

the sum of the protons and the neutrons in an atom

Mechanical energy

the total energy of motion and position of an object

Mixture

a combination of 2 of more substances that are not chemically combined

Molecule

a neutral group of atoms held together by covalent bonds

Momentum

a property of a moving object that depends on the objects mass and velocity

Motion

an objects change in position over time when compared with a reference point

Neutral atom

has no overall charge because there are equal numbers of protons and electrons

Newton's 1st Law

objects at rest tend to stay at rest, objects in motion tend to stay in motion

Newton's 2nd Law

the acceleration of an object depends on the mass of the object and the amount of force applied

Newton's 3rd Law

For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction

Noble gases

the unreactive elements in group 18 of the periodic table; their atoms have 8 valence electrons except Helium

Nonmetals

elements that are dull and are poor conductors of thermal energy and electric current

Nuclear energy

the form of energy associated with changes in the nucleus of an atom

pH scale

a measurement scale of hydronium ion concentration in a solution pH 7 neutral, less than 7 acidic, more than 7 basic

Physical change

a change that affects one or more physical properties of a substance; many physical changes are easy to undo

Physical property

a property of matter that can be observed or measured without changing the identity of the matter

Pitch

how high or low a sound is perceived to be

Potential energy

the energy of position or shape

Radiation

the transfer of energy through matter or space as electromagnetic waves, such as visible light and infrared waves

Reactant

the starting materials in a chemical reaction

Reactivity

ready susceptibility to chemical change

Series circuit

a circuit in which all parts are connected in a single loop

Solar energy

energy from the sun

Solubility

the ability to dissolve in another substance

Sound

longitudinal waves created by vibrations

Speed

the rate at which an object moves

Temperature

a measure of how hot or cold something is

Transverse wave

a wave in which the particles of the waves medium vibrate perpendicular to the direction the wave is traveling

Velocity

the speed of an object in a particular direction

Vibration

the complete back-and-forth motion of an object

Wavelength

the distance between one point on a wave and the corresponding point on an adjacent wave in a series of waves

Weight

a measure of the gravitational force exerted on an object, usually by the Earth

Work

the action that results when a force causes an object to move in the direction of the force

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