overthrew the Nanda family, claimed throne circa 321. empire from 321-185 BC; Chandragupta established this empire; had well organized government; his rule was effective but harsh
grandson of Chandragupta; most honored emperor for his commitment to spreading peace and prosperity to all; after witnessing a slaghter, converted, was buddhist but accepted other religions; decline came after his death
a sect of Buddhism that offers salvation to all and allows popular worship.
A sect of Buddhism focusing on the strict spiritual discipline originally advocated by the Buddha.
A Hindu god considered the creator of the world.
A Hindu god considered the preserver of the world
A Hindu god considered the destroyer of the world.
the most famous of the trading routes established by pastoral nomads connecting the European, Indian, and Chinese; transmitted goods and ideas among civilizations
(202 BC - 220 AD) dynasty started by Lui Bang; a great and long-lasting rule, it discarded the harsh policies of the Qin dynasty and adopted Confucian principles; Han rulers chose officials who passed the civil service exams rather than birth; it was a time of prosperity
government jobs citizens obtained by passing exams
occurs when a group has exclusive control over the production and distribution of certain goods
process of making conquered peoples part of a culture
the world's largest desert (3,500,000 square miles) in northern Africa
African region along the southern border of the Sahara
flat, grassy plain
religion in which spirits play an important role in regulating daily life
the movement of persons from one country or locality to another
can either push people out of a place or pull them into a place
African kingdom that reached the height of its power in the fourth century. conquered Kush. located on a rugged plateau on the Red Sea
Aksum's chief seaport. near present-day Massawa
Aksum reached its height during his rule. conquered part of the Arabian peninsula. then conquered the Kushites and burned Meroe (Kush's capitol) to the ground
Muslim name for the one and only God
born into powerful family. was a trader for Khadija, later married her. meditated in cave outside Mecca. angel Gabriel came to him. Lord who spoke to him was Allah. began to teach Allah was one and only God. led the Hijrah. marched on Mecca, destroyed idols in Ka'aba
the religion practiced by Muslims; means "submission to the will of Allah."
A follower of Islam, means "one who has submitted"
Muhammad's migration from Mecca to (Yathrib) Medina
an Islamic place of worship
the fifth pillar of Islam is a pilgrimage to Mecca during the month of Dhu al-Qadah
the holy book of Islam
an Islamic model for living, based on the life and teachings of Muhammad
body of Islamic law that includes interpretation of the Quran and applies Islamic principles to everyday life
a title taken by Muslim rulers who claimed religious authority to rule. means "successor" or "deputy"
A dynasty that ruled the Muslim Empire from 661 to 750. abandoned simple life and surrounded themselves by wealth. overthrown by the Abbasids
the branch of Islam whose members acknowledge Ali and his descendants as the rightful successors of Muhammad
means followers of Muhammad's example. did not outwardly resist rule of Umayyads
rejected luxurious life of Umayyads. pursued a life of poverty and devotion to a spiritual path
rebel group that helped overthrow the Umayyads. most powerful of the rebels. took control of the empire circa 750. ruled until 1258
Berber armies settled in sourthern Spain and formed a Muslim state here
After the Abbasids ended their reign, this caliphate was formed by Shi'a Muslims who claimed to decend from Muhammad's daughter, Fatima.
House of Wisdom
Combination library, academy, and translation center in Baghdad established in the 800s. scholars of different cultures worked together here in translating texts from Greece, India, Persia, etc into Arabic
Byzantine emperor in the 6th century A.D. who reconquered much of the territory previously ruler by Rome, initiated an ambitious building program , including Hagia Sofia, as well as a new legal code
The body of Roman law collected by order of the Byzantine emperor, Justinian around A.D. 534
Most famous example of Byzantine architecture, it was a temple built under Justinian I and is considered one of the most perfect buildings in the world.
religious images used by Eastern Christians to aid their devotions
the act of banishing a member of the Church from the communion of believers and the privileges of the Church
(627- 649) He reconquerored the northern and western land that China had since the decline of the Han Dynasty. He started the achievements of the Tang Dynasty. married to Wu Zhao
the only woman to ever declare herself empress, she was a member of the Tang Dynasty; takes over when Li Shimin dies; she used trickery to get power, cuts taxes, raises salaries of government officials, encourages trade and buddhism, takes korea as a tributary state, reforms the civil service exams, builds more school for more job opprotunities, takes critism from Li Bo and improves
Steppe nomads' kinship group. members of each claimed to de descended from common ancestor
the official title of a Mongol warrior named Temujin, a 13th century ruler who founded an empire that included parts of China, Central Asia, the Middle East and Europe
for about a century during this time, trade goods flowed safely between Asia and Europe thanks to Mongol-provided security. "Mongol Peace"
Mongolian emperor of China and grandson of Genghis Khan; In 1271, he founded the Yuan Dynasty, and became the first Yuan emperor. realized his father's goal of conquering China
Venetian traveler who explored Asia in the 13th century and served Kublai Khan (1254-1324). prisoner wrote down his stories into a book. success in Europe, but people didn't think it was true
A Japanese religion whose followers believe that all things in the natural world are filled with divine spirits
Japanese soldiers who served their lords (daimyos). means "one who serves" lived according to bushido
"the way of the warrior." traditional code of the Japanese samurai which stressed courage and loyalty and self-discipline and simple living
the supreme military commander of Japan
a period of European history from 500-1500 also known as the medieval period
Germanic people who held power in modern Switzerland and France, or Gaul, eventually accepted Christianity, ended in 843 due to the Treaty of Verdun, which separated the empire into three pieces
religious communities built by the Church to adapt rural conditions. Monks live here
a Frankish dynasty founded by Charlemagne's father that ruled from 751-987
King of the Franks (r. 768-814); emperor (r. 800-814). Through a series of military conquests he established the Carolingian Empire, which encompassed all of Gaul and parts of Germany and Italy. Illiterate, though started an intellectual revival. (250)
in the middle ages, a noble who owned and controlled all activities on his manor
land granted by a lord to a vassal in exchange for loyalty and service
in the middle ages, a noble who usually was given a fief by his lord in exchange for loyalty
mounted horsemen who pledged to defend their lords land in exchange for fiefs. followed the code of chivalry
peasants on a manor; they were bound to the land; they were not slaves who could be bought and sold—still they were not free
A large estate, often including farms and a village, ruled by a lord.
a family's payment of one-tenth of its income to a church
contest where knights could fight; useful in helping knights train for war, jousting, entertainment, "mock fighting", only fought in daylight, only attack with armor on.
religious officials, such as priests, given authority to conduct religious services
Important religious ceremonies that helped one reach salvation
the Church's own body of laws; this law applied to religious teachings, the behavior of the clergy, and even marriages and morals
Holy Roman Empire
Loose federation of mostly German states and principalities, headed by an emperor elected by the princes. It lasted from 962 to 1806.
the appointment of religious officials by kings or nobles.
bishops selling positions in the Church
a style of architecture developed in northern France that spread throughout Europe between the 12th and 16th centuries. cathedrals thrust upward as if reaching for heaven
read a letter from Byzantine emperor asking for help defending Constatinople. issued a call for a Crusade
any of the more or less continuous military expeditions in the 11-13th centuries when Christian powers of Europe tried to recapture the Holy Land from the Muslims
Kurdish warrior and Muslim leader who took Jerusalem in 1187. made a pact with Richard stating that he would allow Christian pilgrims to freely visit the Holy Land's holy relics
Richard the Lion-Hearted
English king. lead the Third Crusade to recapture Jerusalem. agreed to a truce with Saladin circa 1192.
effort by the Spanish to drive the Muslims out of Spain. began in 1100s and ended in 1492 when Granada fell from Muslim control
court held by the Spanish Catholic Church to supress heresy (conversion to faith other than Christianity)
farmers organized land into 3 sections instead of two. two fields would grow crops while the third would rest, regenerating minerals in the soil. food production increased
an organization of individuals in the same business working to improve the economic and social conditions of its members
expansion of trade and business., the expansion of the trade and buisness that transformed European economies during the 16th and 17th centuries.
medieval merchant-class town dweller.
The everyday speech of a particular country or region, often involving nonstandard usage
scholar who argued most basic religious truths could be porved by logical argument.
scholars who met at universities were known as this
William the Conqueror
the duke of Normandy, a province of France, and the leader of the Norman Conquest of England. He defeated the English forces at the Battle of Hastings in 1066 and became the first Norman King of England.
descendant of William. married Eleanor of Aquitaine which gave him control of territory in France, (1154-1189) established a jury system of 12 men; created a Common Law that unified the body of law
rulings of England's royal judges formed a unified body of law is this
This document, signed by King John of England in 1215, is the cornerstone of English justice and law. It declared that the king and government were bound by the same laws as other citizens of England. It contained the antecedents of the ideas of due process and the right to a fair and speedy trial that are included in the protection offered by the U.S. Bill of Rights
legislative group comprised of two burgesses from every borough and two knights from every country
duke from France. succeeded Louis the Sluggard. ruled only a small portion of land but was centered around Paris. began the Capetian dynasty that ruled from 987-1328. weak ruler
most powerful Capetian who ruled from 1180-1223. crafty, unprincipled. seized Normandy from King John in 1204. tripled the amount of lands under his direct control by the end of his reign.
assembly of representatives from all three of the estates, or social classes, in France
city in which Clement V moved to. popes would live there for 69 years. weakened the Church.
a period of division in the Roman Catholic Church, 1378-1417, over papal succession, during which there were two, or sometimes three, claimants to the papal office.
preached that Jesus Christ was head of the Church. offended by wealth and worldliness of clergy. taught that the Bible was final authority for Christian life, not the pope. inspired an English translation of the New Testament
influenced by John Wycliffe's writings. taught that the authority of the Bible was greater than that of the pope's. excommunicated in 1412. was seized by the Church and tried for heresy in 1414. burned at the stake in 1415.
killed one-third of the European population. deadly disease. ripped apart society
Hundred Years' War
began when Capetian king died without a successor. Edward III claimed the French throne. he launched a war for the throne that continued from 1337-1453. finally, the French rallied and drove the English out of France.
Joan of Arc
teenage French peasant, French heroine and military leader inspired by religious visions to organize French resistance to the English and to have Charles VII crowned king, she was later tried for heresy and burned at the stake