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Mauryan Empire

overthrew the Nanda family, claimed throne circa 321. empire from 321-185 BC; Chandragupta established this empire; had well organized government; his rule was effective but harsh

Asoka

grandson of Chandragupta; most honored emperor for his commitment to spreading peace and prosperity to all; after witnessing a slaghter, converted, was buddhist but accepted other religions; decline came after his death

Mahayana

a sect of Buddhism that offers salvation to all and allows popular worship.

Theravada

A sect of Buddhism focusing on the strict spiritual discipline originally advocated by the Buddha.

Brahma

A Hindu god considered the creator of the world.

Vishnu

A Hindu god considered the preserver of the world

Shiva

A Hindu god considered the destroyer of the world.

Silk Roads

the most famous of the trading routes established by pastoral nomads connecting the European, Indian, and Chinese; transmitted goods and ideas among civilizations

Han Dynasty

(202 BC - 220 AD) dynasty started by Lui Bang; a great and long-lasting rule, it discarded the harsh policies of the Qin dynasty and adopted Confucian principles; Han rulers chose officials who passed the civil service exams rather than birth; it was a time of prosperity

Civil Service

government jobs citizens obtained by passing exams

Monopoly

occurs when a group has exclusive control over the production and distribution of certain goods

Assimilation

process of making conquered peoples part of a culture

Sahara

the world's largest desert (3,500,000 square miles) in northern Africa

Sahel

African region along the southern border of the Sahara

Savanna

flat, grassy plain

Animism

religion in which spirits play an important role in regulating daily life

Migration

the movement of persons from one country or locality to another

Push-pull Factors

can either push people out of a place or pull them into a place

Aksum

African kingdom that reached the height of its power in the fourth century. conquered Kush. located on a rugged plateau on the Red Sea

Adulis

Aksum's chief seaport. near present-day Massawa

Ezana

Aksum reached its height during his rule. conquered part of the Arabian peninsula. then conquered the Kushites and burned Meroe (Kush's capitol) to the ground

Allah

Muslim name for the one and only God

Muhammad

born into powerful family. was a trader for Khadija, later married her. meditated in cave outside Mecca. angel Gabriel came to him. Lord who spoke to him was Allah. began to teach Allah was one and only God. led the Hijrah. marched on Mecca, destroyed idols in Ka'aba

Islam

the religion practiced by Muslims; means "submission to the will of Allah."

Muslim

A follower of Islam, means "one who has submitted"

Hijrah

Muhammad's migration from Mecca to (Yathrib) Medina

Mosque

an Islamic place of worship

Hajj

the fifth pillar of Islam is a pilgrimage to Mecca during the month of Dhu al-Qadah

Qur'an

the holy book of Islam

Sunna

an Islamic model for living, based on the life and teachings of Muhammad

Shari'a

body of Islamic law that includes interpretation of the Quran and applies Islamic principles to everyday life

Caliph

a title taken by Muslim rulers who claimed religious authority to rule. means "successor" or "deputy"

Umayyads

A dynasty that ruled the Muslim Empire from 661 to 750. abandoned simple life and surrounded themselves by wealth. overthrown by the Abbasids

Shi'a

the branch of Islam whose members acknowledge Ali and his descendants as the rightful successors of Muhammad

Sunni

means followers of Muhammad's example. did not outwardly resist rule of Umayyads

Sufi

rejected luxurious life of Umayyads. pursued a life of poverty and devotion to a spiritual path

Abbasids

rebel group that helped overthrow the Umayyads. most powerful of the rebels. took control of the empire circa 750. ruled until 1258

al-Andulis

Berber armies settled in sourthern Spain and formed a Muslim state here

Fatimid

After the Abbasids ended their reign, this caliphate was formed by Shi'a Muslims who claimed to decend from Muhammad's daughter, Fatima.

House of Wisdom

Combination library, academy, and translation center in Baghdad established in the 800s. scholars of different cultures worked together here in translating texts from Greece, India, Persia, etc into Arabic

Justinian

Byzantine emperor in the 6th century A.D. who reconquered much of the territory previously ruler by Rome, initiated an ambitious building program , including Hagia Sofia, as well as a new legal code

Justinian Code

The body of Roman law collected by order of the Byzantine emperor, Justinian around A.D. 534

Hagia Sophia

Most famous example of Byzantine architecture, it was a temple built under Justinian I and is considered one of the most perfect buildings in the world.

Icon

religious images used by Eastern Christians to aid their devotions

Excommunication

the act of banishing a member of the Church from the communion of believers and the privileges of the Church

Tang Taizong

(627- 649) He reconquerored the northern and western land that China had since the decline of the Han Dynasty. He started the achievements of the Tang Dynasty. married to Wu Zhao

Wu Zhao

the only woman to ever declare herself empress, she was a member of the Tang Dynasty; takes over when Li Shimin dies; she used trickery to get power, cuts taxes, raises salaries of government officials, encourages trade and buddhism, takes korea as a tributary state, reforms the civil service exams, builds more school for more job opprotunities, takes critism from Li Bo and improves

Clan

Steppe nomads' kinship group. members of each claimed to de descended from common ancestor

Genghis Khan

the official title of a Mongol warrior named Temujin, a 13th century ruler who founded an empire that included parts of China, Central Asia, the Middle East and Europe

Pax Mongolica

for about a century during this time, trade goods flowed safely between Asia and Europe thanks to Mongol-provided security. "Mongol Peace"

Kublai Khan

Mongolian emperor of China and grandson of Genghis Khan; In 1271, he founded the Yuan Dynasty, and became the first Yuan emperor. realized his father's goal of conquering China

Marco Polo

Venetian traveler who explored Asia in the 13th century and served Kublai Khan (1254-1324). prisoner wrote down his stories into a book. success in Europe, but people didn't think it was true

Shinto

A Japanese religion whose followers believe that all things in the natural world are filled with divine spirits

Samurai

Japanese soldiers who served their lords (daimyos). means "one who serves" lived according to bushido

Bushido

"the way of the warrior." traditional code of the Japanese samurai which stressed courage and loyalty and self-discipline and simple living

Shogun

the supreme military commander of Japan

Middle Ages

a period of European history from 500-1500 also known as the medieval period

Franks

Germanic people who held power in modern Switzerland and France, or Gaul, eventually accepted Christianity, ended in 843 due to the Treaty of Verdun, which separated the empire into three pieces

Monastery

religious communities built by the Church to adapt rural conditions. Monks live here

Carolingian Dynasty

a Frankish dynasty founded by Charlemagne's father that ruled from 751-987

Charlemagne

King of the Franks (r. 768-814); emperor (r. 800-814). Through a series of military conquests he established the Carolingian Empire, which encompassed all of Gaul and parts of Germany and Italy. Illiterate, though started an intellectual revival. (250)

Lord

in the middle ages, a noble who owned and controlled all activities on his manor

Fief

land granted by a lord to a vassal in exchange for loyalty and service

Vassal

in the middle ages, a noble who usually was given a fief by his lord in exchange for loyalty

Knights

mounted horsemen who pledged to defend their lords land in exchange for fiefs. followed the code of chivalry

Serf

peasants on a manor; they were bound to the land; they were not slaves who could be bought and sold—still they were not free

Manor

A large estate, often including farms and a village, ruled by a lord.

Tithe

a family's payment of one-tenth of its income to a church

Tournaments

contest where knights could fight; useful in helping knights train for war, jousting, entertainment, "mock fighting", only fought in daylight, only attack with armor on.

Clergy

religious officials, such as priests, given authority to conduct religious services

Sacraments

Important religious ceremonies that helped one reach salvation

Canon Law

the Church's own body of laws; this law applied to religious teachings, the behavior of the clergy, and even marriages and morals

Holy Roman Empire

Loose federation of mostly German states and principalities, headed by an emperor elected by the princes. It lasted from 962 to 1806.

Lay Investiture

the appointment of religious officials by kings or nobles.

Simony

bishops selling positions in the Church

Gothic

a style of architecture developed in northern France that spread throughout Europe between the 12th and 16th centuries. cathedrals thrust upward as if reaching for heaven

Urban II

read a letter from Byzantine emperor asking for help defending Constatinople. issued a call for a Crusade

Crusade

any of the more or less continuous military expeditions in the 11-13th centuries when Christian powers of Europe tried to recapture the Holy Land from the Muslims

Saladin

Kurdish warrior and Muslim leader who took Jerusalem in 1187. made a pact with Richard stating that he would allow Christian pilgrims to freely visit the Holy Land's holy relics

Richard the Lion-Hearted

English king. lead the Third Crusade to recapture Jerusalem. agreed to a truce with Saladin circa 1192.

Reconquista

effort by the Spanish to drive the Muslims out of Spain. began in 1100s and ended in 1492 when Granada fell from Muslim control

Inquisition

court held by the Spanish Catholic Church to supress heresy (conversion to faith other than Christianity)

Three-field System

farmers organized land into 3 sections instead of two. two fields would grow crops while the third would rest, regenerating minerals in the soil. food production increased

Guild

an organization of individuals in the same business working to improve the economic and social conditions of its members

Commercial Revolution

expansion of trade and business., the expansion of the trade and buisness that transformed European economies during the 16th and 17th centuries.

Burgher

medieval merchant-class town dweller.

Vernacular

The everyday speech of a particular country or region, often involving nonstandard usage

Thomas Aquinas

scholar who argued most basic religious truths could be porved by logical argument.

Scholastics

scholars who met at universities were known as this

William the Conqueror

the duke of Normandy, a province of France, and the leader of the Norman Conquest of England. He defeated the English forces at the Battle of Hastings in 1066 and became the first Norman King of England.

Henry II

descendant of William. married Eleanor of Aquitaine which gave him control of territory in France, (1154-1189) established a jury system of 12 men; created a Common Law that unified the body of law

Common Law

rulings of England's royal judges formed a unified body of law is this

Magna Carta

This document, signed by King John of England in 1215, is the cornerstone of English justice and law. It declared that the king and government were bound by the same laws as other citizens of England. It contained the antecedents of the ideas of due process and the right to a fair and speedy trial that are included in the protection offered by the U.S. Bill of Rights

Parliament

legislative group comprised of two burgesses from every borough and two knights from every country

Hugh Capet

duke from France. succeeded Louis the Sluggard. ruled only a small portion of land but was centered around Paris. began the Capetian dynasty that ruled from 987-1328. weak ruler

Philip II

most powerful Capetian who ruled from 1180-1223. crafty, unprincipled. seized Normandy from King John in 1204. tripled the amount of lands under his direct control by the end of his reign.

Estates-General

assembly of representatives from all three of the estates, or social classes, in France

Avignon

city in which Clement V moved to. popes would live there for 69 years. weakened the Church.

Great Schism

a period of division in the Roman Catholic Church, 1378-1417, over papal succession, during which there were two, or sometimes three, claimants to the papal office.

John Wycliffe

preached that Jesus Christ was head of the Church. offended by wealth and worldliness of clergy. taught that the Bible was final authority for Christian life, not the pope. inspired an English translation of the New Testament

Jan Hus

influenced by John Wycliffe's writings. taught that the authority of the Bible was greater than that of the pope's. excommunicated in 1412. was seized by the Church and tried for heresy in 1414. burned at the stake in 1415.

Bubonic Plague

killed one-third of the European population. deadly disease. ripped apart society

Hundred Years' War

began when Capetian king died without a successor. Edward III claimed the French throne. he launched a war for the throne that continued from 1337-1453. finally, the French rallied and drove the English out of France.

Joan of Arc

teenage French peasant, French heroine and military leader inspired by religious visions to organize French resistance to the English and to have Charles VII crowned king, she was later tried for heresy and burned at the stake

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