the organic process whereby the DNA sequence in a gene is copied into mRNA
the process whereby genetic information coded in messenger RNA directs the formation of a specific protein at a ribosome in the cytoplasm
a specific sequence of three adjacent bases on a strand of DNA or RNA that provides genetic code information for a particular amino acid
the form of RNA that carries information from DNA in the nucleus to the ribosome sites of protein synthesis in the cell;
determined the first match: UUU coded for the amino acid phenylalanine.
A specific nucleotide sequence in DNA that binds RNA polymerase and indicates where to start transcribing RNA.
an enzyme that starts (catalyzes) the formation of RNA by using a strand of DNA molecule as a template
protection for mRNA: modified guanine nucleotide, when pre-mRNA is modified the 5 primed end is synthesized first; it is a modified form of a guanine nucleotide "start translation here"
3' poly A tail
protection for mRNA: consists of adenine nucleotides
type of RNA that carries amino acids to the ribosome
a mutation in which only one nucleotide or nitrogenous base in a gene is changed
base pair substitution
ONE nucleotide is replaced by another, this can alter this paticular triplet, and therefore alter one amino acid
A mutation that changes a single nucleotide, but does not change the amino acid created.
A point mutation in which a codon that specifies an amino acid is mutated into a codon that specifies a different amino acid.
A mutation that changes an amino acid codon to one of the three stop codons, resulting in a shorter and usually nonfunctional protein.
When nucleotides, except in multiples of three, are either deleted or inserted, resulting in the reading frame being shifted and translating nonfunctional proteins.