Psychology: Chapter 15

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In recent years, the diagnostic frequency of autistic disorder has exploded in an epidemic-like fashion. One explanation for this increase is that the diagnostic practices have simply changed in ways that allow for more frequent diagnoses. This demonstrates which of the six principles mentioned in your chapter?

Occam's Razor

One sign of abnormality is when a person engages in behavior that creates a great deal of emotional discomfort or ________.

subjective distress

Overmier and Seligman have described the phenomenon of learned ________ as the tendency to feel powerless in the face of events that we can't control. They have also argued that it provides an explanation for many cases of major depressive disorder.

helplessness

Which of the types of psychological disorders is marked by disruptions in one's sense of consciousness and/or memory?

Dissociative disorders

Kevan used to study diligently for exams in all of his high school classes and begin working on writing projects immediately after they were assigned. However, no matter what he did, he could never score higher than C or C+. What prediction would the behavioral model make about Kevan's behavior today as a college student?

Kevan may begin to give up working so hard because of the lack of a payoff for his efforts.

Dr. Nwoambi is a psychologist who is currently evaluating a new client. Dr. Nwoambi would most likely refer to the ________ to assist her in diagnosing her client's psychological disorder.

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

Any pattern of behavior that causes people significant distress, is uncommon in society, and/or harms their ability to function in daily life is called ________.

a mental disorder

Research into the memories of those claiming to suffer from dissociative identity disorder (DID) has found that information presented to one "alter" is usually available to the other. This finding has shed doubt on the concept of amnesia across alternate personalities in cases of DID. This situation demonstrates which of the six principles mentioned in your chapter?

Falsifiability

Shelby is concerned that she is spending too much of her day worrying about things that are out of her control. She often experiences disturbances in sleep and often feels tense, even in situations where there is nothing that is directly threatening her safety. If you were a clinical psychologist, you would be trying to determine if Shelby meets the criteria for

generalized anxiety disorder.

When a psychologist or psychiatrist is using the DSM-IV-TR as a guide to evaluating a client, he or she would assess the client on each of five ________.

axes

Which of the following statements is true about the DSM-IV-TR?

It describes symptoms and includes information regarding the prevalence of specific disorders.

Major changes in sleep patterns, weight level, and a loss of interest in pleasurable activities characterize

major depressive disorder.

The ________ rule is a test of legal insanity that came from an 1843 British trial.

M'Naghten

In some cases of dissociative identity disorder, patients have claimed to have amazing numbers of alternate personalities. The evidence for the veracity of these claims, however, has been less then compelling. These cases demonstrate which of the six principles mentioned in your chapter?

Extraordinary claims

The research data suggest that schizophrenia results from

biological/genetic causes.

What is the main difference between generalized anxiety disorder and phobic disorder?

Phobic disorder is linked to specific triggers while generalized anxiety disorder is not linked to a specific trigger.

Feeling insects crawling on your skin (when none are really there) or hearing voices (when no one is around or no one is talking to you) would be examples of what symptom of schizophrenia?

Hallucinations

In class, a psychology professor states that learned helplessness causes persons to make attributions that are internally focused, global in nature, and stable. A student who demonstrates critical thinking would raise his or her hand and remind the professor that

correlation does not equal causation.

The single most controversial psychological disorder is

dissociative identity disorder.

It is not unreasonable to assume that in the Middle Ages, signs of mental illness were believed to be caused by ________.

demons

While each panic attack is different, the symptoms of a panic attack often peak in less than ________ minutes.

10 minutes

Despite some very frightening claims that research had found a relationship between the MMR vaccination and the development of autistic disorder, studies in the United States, Europe, and Japan failed to produce those same results. This problem with ________ has cast enormous doubt on the original claims that a relationship between these two events truly exists.

replicability

Which of the following is a disorder that takes the form of a bodily ailment that has no physical cause?

Somatoform

Although the relationship between the some vaccines and the development of autism has received virtually no support in the scientific community, many continue to believe that a relationship exists. What is the ingredient in these vaccines that is thought to be the culprit behind autistic disorder?

thimerosol

The most frequent type of hallucinations involves

hearing voices or sounds that are not real.

Kat is giving a report on dissociative identity disorder (DID) in her psychopathology seminar. A main conclusion that you would expect to hear from her talk is that

DID is most often created by questionable therapeutic practices rather than being a true disorder.

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