Anatomy exam

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same as kristen's with definitions and terms switched

Epiphyses

What term refers to the ends of a long bone?

Osteoblasts

What are bone building cells called?

Osteoclasts

What are bone-resorbing or destroying cells?

26

How many bones are in the adult vertebral column?

Scoliosis

What is an abnormal side-to-side curve in the vertebral column?

ball-and-socket

Which joints permit the widest range of movement?

open

What is another name for a compound fracture?

Long

What type of bone is the humerus?

Thoracic

What is the region of the vertebral column that contains the largest number of bones?

Femur

What is the longest bone of the body?

Mineral storage, blood formation, protection

What are the functions of the skeletal system?

long, short, flat, irregular

What are the four major categories of bone?

true ribs

What are ribs called that attach directly to the sternum by means of cartilage?

2

How many pairs of floating ribs are there?

2

Hinge joints allow motion in how many directions?

Pivot

When you turn your head, you are using what kind of joint?

hematopoiesis

The process of blood cell formation is known as what?

206

How many total bones are in the body?

Cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacrum, coccyx

What are the 5 regions of the spine?

Striated/skeletal

What is another name for a voluntary muscle?

Biceps brachii

What is the prime mover in the bending of the elbow?

Triceps brachii

What is the prime mover in the extending of the elbow?

Antagonist

What are the triceps brachii and the biceps brachii considered to be to each other?

extension

What is the movement that is the opposite of flexion?

contraction and shortening

What do all muscles specialize in?

Attachment to a more stationary bone

What is the origin of a muscle?

attachment to a more moveable bone

What is the insertion of a muscle?

movement, maintaining posture, producing heat for the body

What are the primary functions of the muscular system?

abduction

What is moving a body part away from the midline on the body?

Oxygen debt

The continued heavy breathing after strenuous exercise is an attempt by the body to "repay" the what?

Twitch

What is a quick jerky responce of a given muscle to a single stimulus called?

decrease it

What does muscle atrophy do to the size of a muscle?

Visceral muscle

What is another name for smooth muscle?

Voluntary muscle

What is another term for skeletal muscle?

Biceps brachii

What is the muscle on the front of the arm that is responsible for flexion?

Pectoralis major

What is the large fan shaped muscle that covers the upper chest?

Triceps brachii

What is the muscle on the back of the upper arm that is responsible for elbow extension?

Intercostal muscles

What are muscles that are located between the ribs?

Quadriceps

What is the group of muscles that make up the front of the thigh?

peripheral

Which nervous system is the eye considered to be part of?

dendritesl

What carries nerve impulses toward the cell body?

highly

Dendrites are usually highly or lowly branched?

afferent neurons

What are sensory neurons also called?

efferent neurons

What are motor neurons also called?

Interneurons

What is another name for connecting neurons?

Epineurium

What is the outermost covering of the nerve?

Medulla Oblongata

Where are the vital centers located?

Midbrain

What is the most superior part of the brainstem?

Spinal cord

What is the main reflex center of the central nervous system?

Hypothalamus

What structure is part of the central nervous system but also produces hormones for the endocrine system?

cerebellum

What lies just below the occipital lobe of the cerebrum and is responsible for muscle coordination?

Thalamus

What is the brain structure that associates sensations with emotions?

medulla oblongata

Part of the brainstem that contains that "vital centers."

cerebrum

What is the largest and uppermost part of the brain?

thyroid

What endocrine organ increases metabolism and increases blood calcium?

Ovaries

What endocrine organ produces estrogen and results in development of female characteristics?

parathyroid

What endocrine organ increases blood calcium concentration?

pituitary

What endocrine organ stimulates growth and is sometimes refered to as the master gland?

Pineal

What endocrine organ is the responsible for the body's internal clock?

Hypothalamus

What endocrine organ controls body temperature, appetite, thirst, and overall homeostasis?

Testes

What endocrine organ produces testosterone and results in the development of male characteristics?

Pancreatic islets

What endocrine organ increases blood glucose level and decreases blood glucose with insulin and basically controls glucose levels in the body?

thymus

What endocrine organ is responsible for functions of the immune system?

Adrenals

What endocrine organ maintains anti-inflammatory effect and controls stress responses?

Anterior Pituitary

Which endocrine organ is responsible for gigantism?

Thyroid

Which endocrine organ is responsible for the secretion of calcitonin?

Hypothalamus

Which endocrine organ is responsible for inhibiting hormones?

Adrenals

Which endocrine organ is responsible for body's resistance to stress?

Anterior pituitary

Which endocrine organ is responsible for secretion of hormones that stimulate other endocrine glands to grow and secrete?

a particular hormone

What do target organ cells respond to?

Ductless

Are endocrine glands ductless or do they secrete into ducts?

Sphenoid

what is the location of the pituitary gland?

serum

What is plasma without clotting factors?

hemoglobin

What carries the oxygen through the blood and gives blood its red pigment?

O negative

What type of blood is the universal donor?

AB negative

What blood type is the universal recipient?

Thrombus

What is stationary clotting?

embolism

What is a clot that is no longer stationary?

Transportation of gases, nutrients

What is the primary function of blood?

4-6

How many pints of blood does the average adult have in the body?

Rhesus Monkey

What animal helped scientists discover the Rh factor in blood?

80-120 days

What is the average life of a red blood cell?

White blood cells, Red blood cells, platelets

What are the three formed elements found in whole blood?

Slightly alkaline

Blood is normally slightly acidic or slightly alkaline?

Antigen

What is a substance that can stimulate the body to make antibodies?

Gastrointestinal tract (GI Tract)

what is another name for the alimentary canal?

Digestion, absorption, metabolism

Food undergoes what 3 kinds of processing in the body?

Exocrine

The liver is what kind of gland?

stomach

Where does protein digestion begin?

proteins

the enzyme pepsin is primarily concerned with the digestion of what?

Amino acids

What are the "building blocks" of protein molecules?

Incisors, canines, molars, premolars

What are the 4 major types of teeth found in the human mouth?

touching the diaphragm; left

The apex of the heart lies_________, pointing toward the ________ lung.

bicuspid (mitral) valve

What valve is between the left atrium and the left ventricle?

tricuspid

What valve is between the right atrium and the right ventricle?

Right atrium

Blood passing through the tricuspid valve has just left which chamber?

left atrium

Blood returning from the lung enters which heart chamber?

Trachea

What is the windpipe properly referred to as?

Pleura

What covers the outer surface of the lungs and lines the inner surface of the rib cage?

Breathing (pulmonary ventilation)

What is the process that moves air in and out of the lungs?

expiration

What is taking place when the diaphragm and other respiratory muscles relax?

1 pint

How much air does a person ordinarily take in with each breath?

hemoglobin

What is most oxygen that is transported in the body bound to?

inspiration

Elevation of the ribs, contraction of the diaphragm, and elongation of the chest cavity from top to bottom occur during what process?

Air distributor

the function of the respiratory system is?

pharynx

upper respiratory tract

air distributor and gas exchanger

The organs of the repiratory system serve as what?

filters, warms, and humidifies

the respiratory system does what to the air taken in?

nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs

What are the major organs of the respiratory system?

alveoli

The respiratory system ends in million of tiny, thin-walled sacs called what?

pharynx

organ of the digestive and respiratory systems; more commonly called the throat

larynx

the voice box located just below the pharynx; commonly known as the Adam's apple

trachea

the windpipe; the tube extending from the larynx to the bronchi

bronchi

the branches of the trachea

bronchioles

small branches of a bronchus

alveoli

small cavity; they are microscopic scalike dilations of terminal bronchioles

diffusion

spreading; for example, scattering of dissolved paricles

respiratory muscosa

mucus-covered membrane that lines the tubes of the respiratory tree

respiratory membrane

the single layer of cells that makes up the wall of the alveoli

pleura

the serous membrane in the thoracic cavity

inspiration

what is the process of moving air into the lungs; opposite of exhalation and also referred to as inhalation?

expiration

what is the process of moving air out of the lungs; opposite of inhalation or inspiration and also referred to as exhalation?

diffusion

how is gas exchanged between the lungs and blood, and the blood and tissues?

cranial nerves, spinal nerves, autonomic and peripheral nervous systems

What makes up the peripheral nervous system?

numerous organs

sympathetic stimulation usually results in a response of what?

diaphysis

What term refers to the shaft of a long bone?

Humerus, ulna, and raduis

Which bones make up the arm?

adduction

What term means movement towards the body?

They don't have a nucleus

Why are red blood cells' life spans so short?

albumins, globulins, fibrinogens, and prothrombins

What are the 4 important proteins in the plasma portion of whole blood?

Mechanical

The churning of food in the stomach is an example of the ____________ breakdown of food

Chemical

__________ breakdown occurs when digestive enzymes act on food as it passes through the digestive tract

Mouth, stomach, cecum, esophagus, rectum, and pharynx

The main organs of the digestive system are what?

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