Psychology Final

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Reality therapy, client-centered therapy, psychoanalysis, and behavioral therapies are all forms of

Psychotherapy

Leading clients to a deeper understanding of the origins of their thoughts, emotions, and behaviors is the goal of _______ therapy, while bringing about changes in troublesome thoughts and behaviors without seeking an understanding of their origins is the goal of ___________ therapy.

Insight vs. Action Therapy

A sense of identity, a purpose in life, and adaptive coping strategies are cited in your textbook as

Elements of Positive Mental Health

In 1793, a French doctor changed in Bicêtre Asylum in Paris from squalid "madhouse" into a mental hospital by unchaining the patients and treating them humanely and compassionately. This French doctor was

Philippe Pinel

Sigmund Freud became convinced that the "hysteria" his patients were suffering from was caused by

deeply hidden unconscious conflict

Many of Freud's first patients had physical symptoms, such as paralysis or numbness, for which no physical cause could be found. Freud called this condition

Hysteria

Aaron is asked by his therapist to relax and talk about any thoughts that come into his head, letting his thoughts move freely from one idea to the next. Aaron's therapist is using which psychoanalytic technique?

Free Association

In psychoanalysis resistance was thought by Freud to be important because it

Bring patients awareness so the patient can deal with them realistically.

Though transference, the patient re-experiences______, which the therapist can then help the patient to recognize and understand.

repressed emotions

Client-centered therapy is based on the work of

Psychologist Carl Rogers

Which of the following would be described as a non-directive therapy based on insights gained from conscious thoughts and feelings and that emphasizes accepting one's true self?

Client-Centered Therapy

Who is most often associated with the development of Gestalt therapy?

The Work of Fritz Perls

Which of the following is NOT an advantage of Internet therapy?

Lack of interpersonal cues

Which of the following is a key feature of successful face-to-face therapy that is not a part of media counseling?

Establishment of a continuing relationship between two people.

Which of the following allows the client and therapist to see one another on computer monitors and to talk via speakerphones, although it still lacks the close personal contact of face-to-face interaction?

Skype

Behavior therapy involves applying

Classical or Operant Conditioning

Learning principles are used to make constructive changes in behavior in _______ therapy, while people are led to a deeper understanding of the origins and meanings of their behavior in ________ therapy.

Behavior

The principal assumption of behavior therapy is that

People have learned to be the way they are.

Of the following, which is usually treated by desensitization?

Phobias, fears, & anxieties

Jan has a fear of riding across bridges. In order to get her over her phobia, she is asked to imagine a series of increasingly distressing images involving her riding in a car across increasingly longer bridges. The most distressing being imagining herself driving across the Lake Pontchartrain Bridge to her cousin's house. This procedure is referred to as

Systematic Desensitization

Which of the following is a technique for reducing fear or anxiety that is based on holding upsetting thoughts in mind while rapidly moving the eyes from side to side?

Eye Movement Desensitization & Reprocessing (EMDR)

Which of the following is NOT an operant conditioning procedure used in behavior modification?

Positive Reinforcement, Non-reinforcement, Extinction, Punishment, Shaping, Stimulus Control, Time Out

If a response is not followed by a reward, it will occur less frequently, according to which principle of operant conditioning?

Non-Reinforcement

If a response is followed by an unpleasant effect or discomfort, the response behavior will be suppressed. This is an example of

Punishment

Which of the following are symbolic rewards, such as plastic chips, that can be exchanged for real rewards and are used to encourage positive changes in behavior?

Token Economy

Since tokens gain their reinforcing value because they can be exchanged for candy, food, watching TV, or other privileges, tokens are considered ______________ reinforcers.

Positive

Social rewards, such as recognition and approval, are used in conjection with token economies to

Use prise, récognition, & approval to keep patients sane.

Carla believes that everyone who belongs to "her" political party are "good, trustworthy" people, while anyone who belongs to the other party is "bad and untrustworthy" and should be ostracized by "her" group. According to Aaron Beck, Carla is exhibiting

Selective Perception

The goal of encounter groups is to

tear down defenses and false fronts

Lifespring, the Garden Group, the Forum, and other commercial programs that claim to increase self-awareness and facilitate constructive personal change are examples of

Large-Group Awareness Training

To show the effectiveness of therapies, which of the following would be used as the control group?

The group not receiving therapy

Regarding the effectiveness of psychology, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Only if the people in the experiment group improve more than the control group is when therapy is effective.

In terms of its approach, which of the following types of psychology is considered a non-directive therapy?

Client-Centered Therapy

The strength of rational-emotive behavior therapy involves

Clarity of Thinking and Goals

Which of the following is a caring relationship that unites a therapist and a client in working to solve the client's problems?

Therapeutic Alliance

In counseling a friend, which of the following would NOT be one of your goals?

Giving Advice

A therapist who has the awareness, knowledge, and skills necessary to treat clients from diverse cultural backgrounds is referred to as a(n) ________ therapist.

Culturally Skilled Therapist

Pharmacotherapy can best be described as the use of

Drugs to Relieve Psychological Disorders

When it comes to treating chronic Schizophrenia

Antipsychotics

To apply covert reinforcement procedures to increase desirable behavior, you would use

Positive Imagery

The most effective technique you can use to overcome common fears is

Hierarchy

The first step in desensitization is

Learning to relax voluntarily

Which of the following would be most valid reason for seeking a psychotherapist?

Suicidal thoughts or impulses

Tabitha is a college student who is receiving supportive therapy by attending a group made up of other women suffering from anorexia and bulimia. Tabitha finds that by helping others in the group, she is helping herself. Tabitha is participating in a(n) ___________ group.

Self-Help Group

A physician, who describes an infant as slow to respond and develop because of congenital problems, is attributing the cause of the abnormality to the

Pregnancy

Fetal alcohol syndrome is characterized by

Prenatal Influences

If a mother smokes heavily during pregnancy, it is more likely that the infant will be born

With Defects.

Which of the following teratogens tends to greatly reduce oxygen to the fetus, increase the risk of miscarriage, prematurity, and low birth weight with surviving children showing lower scores on language and mental abilities tests?

Tobacco

With regard to temperament, "difficult children"

are moody, intense, and easily angered.

From an early age, Justin tended to be a very moody child, who reacted intensely, often angrily, to most situations. Thomas and Chess would be describe Justin as a(n) _________ child.

"Difficult"

The concept of a dynamic relationship between parents and children is best illustrated by the fact that babies

rapidly become active participants in their own development.

A person's developmental level refers to that person's current state of

Physical, Emotional, and Intellectual development

Which of the following devices was invented by Robert Fantz and allows researchers to observe the movements of an infants' eyes in order to determine what infants can see and what holds their attention?

A looking chamber

Amy lifts her head, then learns to crawl, then to talk with the development progressing from her head to her feet. This progression illustrates

Motor Development

Since even the basic human emotions of anger, fear, and joy, which appear unlearned, take time to develop, early emotional development must follow a pattern closely tied to

Maturation

Bridges found that emotions appear in a consistent order, and he believed that the first basic split is between

Pleasant and unpleasant emotions

At three months of age, Jason's facial expressions seem to communicate emotions like fear, anger, and joy. Jason's parents can assume that

may be unlearned.

The fact that Maria, who is nine months old, smiles when her daddy enters the room

Social Smile

A researcher videotapes a young child and then lets the chld see the video on television in order to test for

Self-recognition

According to research in social development, most infants have to be at least what age before they are able to recognize their images being shown on a television?

18 months old

Baby Rafael cries when his mother leaves him with a new babysitter. This is indicative of

Separation Anxiety

Parents who view their children as having few rights but adult-like responsibilities are referred to as ___________ parents.

Authoritarian Parents

Resilient children who are also characterized by being independent, competent, self-controlled, assertive, and inquiring are often a consequence of which parental style?

Authoritative Parents

Sam is a young adult who is good at bouncing back after bad experiences and has the strength, self-control, and positive coping skills to thrive even in difficult circumstances. Sam's parents were most likely _________ parents.

Authoritative Parents

Zack is a competent, independent decision-maker who exercts self-control and acts responsibly. According to Baumrind, Zack probably has _______ parents.

Authoritative Parents

When interacting with their infants, mothers tend to ________ than fathers.

Nurture and caretake more

Regarding the similarities and differences of the ethnic communities presented in the textbook, which of the following conclusions is FALSE?

African-American, Hispanic, Arab-American, Implications.

Consonants first enter a child's language when the child beings

to Babble.

Piaget believed that one's intellect grew through a process of

Assimilation & Accommodation

A child is largely nonverbal, is learning to coordinate purposeful movements with sense information, and is developing the concept of object permanence. The child is in Piaget's ______ stage.

Sensorimotor Stage

Objects cease to appear and disappear magically with the child's conceptions becoming more orderly, stable, and predictable by the end of the ________ stage.

Sensorimotor Stage

The mental ability to change the shape or form of a substance and realize that its volume remains the same is termed

Transformation

The concepts of reversibility and conservation develop during the _________ stage.

Concrete Operational Stage

Active play, explorations involving the senses, and playing "peekaboo" are effective ways of guiding intellectual development during the _____ stage of cognitive development.

Sensorimotor Stage

You are playing the game Monopoly with your sister. Although she understands the basic instructions and will play by the rules, she in not capable of understanding transactions dealing with mortgages, loans, and special pacts with other players. Your sister is most likely in the _____ stage of cognitive development.

Concrete Operational Stage

Which of the following methods was used by Baillargeon to test for the mental capacities of infants?

"Magic Show"

The culturally-defined period of life between childhood and adulthood is known as

Adolescence

Emily is a late maturing girl. Compared to the early maturing girls, we can expect Emily to

Be more popular, better self-image, skinnier, No early sex life, dependent.

In which level of moral development are moral choices guided by the direct consequences of one's actions, such as punishment, reward, or an exchange of favors?

Preconventional Level

Elaine and Jeffery have been married for five years. Elaine spends her time taking care of their two-year-old son, while Jeffery spends his time watching television or going out "with the guys." She and Jeffery do not share any common interests, and they seldom talk to each other except about their son. Erikson would say that Elaine is experiencing

Isolation/Mid-life Crisis

After the late 50s, personal development is usually complicated by

Physical Aging

The top scorers on intellectual tests who were over the age of 65 were people who

Continued to work and remain intellectually active

A nursing home administrator gives the residents little choices in activities they participate in or in the food that is served. Friendships between opposite sex residents are also discouraged. She tells the staff that "the elderly are like little children that don't know what's best for them." This statement of the administrator reflects

Ageism

Spanking or taking away toys or privileges are examples of

Power Assertion

Maggie Mamen believes that parents, in an attempt to empower their children, have created children who have artificially high levels of self-esteem and a sense of entitlement .This style of parenting would be considered ________ parenting.

Management techniques

According to Maggie Mamen, which type of parenting produces children who bullied their classmates to got their way ni school and who, as adults, placed excessive importance on physical beauty and became addicted to seeking ways to enhance their self-esteem?

Management techniques

When natural consequences for a behavior do not exist

parents can set up logical consequences.

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