a group of words with a subject, verb, and may or may not be a complete thought
independent clause (simple sentence)
subject, verb, can stand alone as a complete thought
dependent clause (subordinating clause)
subject, verb, cannot stand alone
ex: If you want to watch a movie <--dependent (you must sit) <--independent
after, before, since, whether, because, until, if, when, whenever
dependent clause+independent clause=
independent clause+independent clause=
if the subordinating clause comes first, use a comma.
No comma needed if the subordinating clause comes last.
"verb looking" word that is used as a noun, adjective, or adverb (not as a verb)
to+verb (acts as an adverb)
ex: to swim, to find, to sing, to jump, to run, to learn etc.
*be careful not to confuse with a prepositional phrase
verb+ing (present participle), verb+ed (past participle)
used as an adjective
ex: the singing dog, the pampered child
*watch for irregular endings (ex: burnt)
verb+ing (acts as a noun)
ex: eating is fun, i like eating