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neuron and neuroglia

two types of nerve cells

neurons

basic transmitter of nervous system: axons and dendrites

axons

carry impulses away from cell body of neuron (only one per neuron)

dendrites

carry impulses toward cell body of neuron (numerous per neuron)

myelin

white protein lipid complex surrounding axons

nodes of Ranvier

periodic gaps in myelin along the axon producing faster and more efficient impulse conduction

Neuroglial cells

transport nutrients, wastes, gases among neurons, vascular system and CSF

neuroglial

which one do we have more of: neurons or neuroglial cells?

neuroglial cells

capable of division: most brain tumors originate from this cell type

microglia

phagocytic scavenger cells when nervous tissue is damaged

astrocytes

star shaped: provide nutrients to neurons and form scar tissue if brain is injured

oligodendeocytes

create myelin

ependymal

form lining of brain ventricles and central canal of spinal cord

depolarization

sodium IN, Potassium OUT, impulse is conducted

repolarization

cell returns to resting state

saltatory conduction

impulses hop from one node of Ranvier to another: conserves energy

presynaptic terminal

either inhibitory or excitatory: secrete neurotransmitters

synaptic cleft

microscopic space neurotransmitter has to cross to get from presynaptic terminal to postsynaptic membrane

postsynaptic membrane

effector cell or neuron that is the reciever of the neurotransmitter (part of the synapse)

vertebral and internal carotid arteries

two sets of arteries that supply blood to the brain

circle of Willis

name for place where two arterial systems connect at base of brain

middle cerebral artery

principal blood supply of parietal lobe; 90% strokes

cerebral veins

no muscle layer or valves: dump blood into venous sinuses

glucose

brain cannot store this

confusion will develop

if cerebral glucose drops to less than 70...

coma will develop

if cerebral glucose drops to less than 20

autoregulation

ability of cerebral blood vessels to adjust their diameter to arterial pressure changes within the brain

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