Ecology 1

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O

Which soil horizon is most influenced by climate?

B

Which of the following levels of organization is/are correctly ordered?

A) population, ecosystem, landscape, individual, interaction

B) individual, population, interaction, community, ecosystem

C) biosphere, landscape, individual, community, interaction

D) ecosystem, landscape, region, interaction, population

E) None of the choices are correct.

C

Which of the following rivers would have the highest salinity?

A) Columbia River

B) Rio Negro

C) Pecos

D) They all have equally low salinity levels.

E) They all have equally high salinity levels.

B

Which of the following vertical aquatic zones is correctly ordered?

A) bathypelagic, mesopelagic, epipelagic, abyssal, hadal

B) epipelagic, mesopelagic, bathypelagic, abyssal, hadal

C) abyssal, bathypelagic, hadal, mesopelagic, epipelagic

D) epipelagic, bathypelagic, mesopelagic, hadal, abyssal

E) mesopelagic, abyssal, epipelagic, hadal, bathypelagic

A

Which of the following are mismatched?

A) psychrophile: salt-loving microbe

B) thermophile: heat-loving microbe

C) poikilotherm: ectotherm

D) homeotherm: endotherm

E) None of the choices are correct.

E

The arctic and alpine cushion plants and the Camnula grasshopper both use __________________ to aid in thermoregulation.

A) countercurrent heat exchange mechanisms

B) endothermic methods

C) increased water retention

D) torpor

E) dark pigmentation

C

Tropical dry forests are located between

A) 0° and 10° north and south latitudes.

B) 0° and 25° south latitude.

C) 10° and 25° north and south latitudes.

D) 10° and 25° south latitude.

E) None of the choices are correct.

A

Aquatic organisms whose ionic concentration of their body fluids exceeds that of their surroundings are

A) hyperosmotic.

B) hypoosmotic.

C) isoosmotic.

D) osmotic.

E) None of the choices are correct.

B

If a person were to place a marine fish into a fresh water lake, water would diffuse

A) up its concentration gradient and enter the fish.

B) down its concentration gradient and enter the fish.

C) down its concentration gradient and exit the fish.

D) up its concentration gradient and exit the fish.

E) None of the choices are correct.

A

A marsh is the junction between ________________ and _________________.

A) sea; land

B) river; sea

C) land; river

D) estuary; land

E) mangrove; sea

D

Saturation water vapor pressure

A) increases with temperature.

B) decreases with temperature.

C) parallels vapor pressure density.

D) both increases with temperature and parallels vapor pressure density.

E) both decreases with temperature and parallels vapor pressure density.

B

Aquatic organisms located off the ocean floor are

A) benthic.

B) pelagic.

C) neritic.

D) littoral.

E) None of the choices are correct.

E

All of the following statements are true except:

A) A horizon: mixture of organic and mineral materials.

B) B horizon: deposition of clay and humus.

C) C horizon: weathered parent material.

D) O horizon: organic layer.

E) All of the choices are correct.

B

Which of the following soil horizon profiles is ordered correctly?

A) A, B, C, O

B) O, A, B, C

C) O, B, A, C

D) C, B, O, A

E) None of the choices are correct.

C

The water availability for organisms is determined by

A) internal dissolved ion concentrations.

B) external dissolved ion concentrations.

C) movement of water down its concentration gradient.

D) movement of water up its concentration gradient.

E) None of the choices are correct.

B

Most of the earth's deserts are

A) located at 0°latitude.

B) located at 30°north and south latitudes.

C) located at 60°north and south latitudes.

D) located at 90°north and south latitudes.

E) randomly scattered around the earth's surface.

C

Population ecologists do not study

A) reproductive ecology.

B) distribution and abundance.

C) energy flow.

D) extinction.

E) adaptation.

A

All of the following statements concerning wind are true except:

A) northeast trade winds blow toward the poles.

B) southeast trade winds blow toward the equator.

C) polar easterlies blow toward the equator.

D) westerlies blow toward the south pole in the southern hemisphere.

E) westerlies blow toward the north pole in the northern hemisphere.

C

There are(is) _______ convective air cell(s) per hemisphere, _______ total for the earth.

A) 1; 2

B) 2; 4

C) 3; 6

D) 4; 8

E) 5; 10

B

The highest level of ecological organization focuses on

A) the gene.

B) the biosphere.

C) warbler use of trees.

D) forests.

E) None of the choices are correct.

C

In general, desert organisms try to decrease their rate of evaporative cooling in order to conserve water. Which of the following desert organisms sweats?

A) camel

B) cactus

C) cicada

D) scorpion

E) tiger beetle

A

All of the following statements concerning oligotrophic lakes are true except:

A) warm temperatures.

B) low nutrients.

C) high oxygen content.

D) deep and clear waters.

E) low biological productivity.

E

Of the following aquatic environments, which has the highest productivity?

A) lakes

B) rivers

C) oceanic zone

D) intertidal zone

E) coral reefs

C

Water vapor is continuously added to the air by

A) transpiration.

B) evaporation.

C) both transpiration and evaporation.

D) precipitation.

E) both evaporation and precipitation.

B

Heating of the earth's surface causes

A) cool air to rise and warm air to sink.

B) warm air to rise and cool air to sink.

C) warm and cool air to condense.

D) warm and cool air to mix.

E) None of the choices are correct.

C

Which of the following survival mechanisms is/are best suited for intense heat and drought?

A) hibernation

B) torpor

C) estivation

D) both hibernation and torpor

E) both torpor and estivation

E

The timing and extent of tides are a function of all of the following except

A) the moon's gravitational force.

B) the sun's gravitational force.

C) geography

D) the size of the body of water

E) salinity levels

D

The 'scientific method' includes

A) observations, experiments, and modeling.

B) posing questions and formulating testable hypotheses.

C) statistical analysis.

D) observations, experiments, and modeling; posing questions and formulating testable hypotheses; and statistical analysis.

E) both observations, experiments, and modeling, and posing questions and formulating testable hypotheses.

C

Which is not considered a reef?

A) atoll

B) barrier

C) kelp

D) fringing

E) None of the choices are correct.

A

In a terrestrial plant, water movement is as follows:

A) from less negative water potential to a more negative water potential.

B) from more negative water potential to a less negative water potential.

C) from less positive water potential to a more positive water potential.

D) from zero water potential to a more negative water potential.

E) from zero water potential to a more positive water potential.

A

When an organism becomes acclimated to a new environmental situation; it will generally involve

A) physiological changes.

B) genetic changes.

C) sociological changes.

D) both physiological changes and genetic changes.

E) both genetic changes and sociological changes

B

Coriolis effect causes winds in the

A) Northern Hemisphere to deflect to the left.

B) Northern Hemisphere to deflect to the right.

C) Southern Hemisphere to deflect to the right.

D) Northern and Southern Hemispheres to deflect to the left.

E) Northern and Southern Hemispheres to deflect to the right.

D

All of the following statements are true except:

A) Tropical rain forests are continuously warm and wet.

B) Tropical dry forests have rainy and dry seasons.

C) In a desert, evaporation exceeds precipitation.

D) Taigas have moderate temperatures with occasional droughts.

E) Tundras are cold and dry.

D

Desert plants can prevent overheating by utilizing all of the following temperature regulating methods except:

A) paraheliotropism.

B) decreasing rates of radiative heating.

C) decreasing conductive heating.

D) increasing evaporative cooling.

E) increasing convective cooling.

D

It is a very hot day, and you jump into a lake to cool off. What is the method of heat exchange?

A) conduction

B) radiation

C) evaporation

D) convection

E) None of the choices are correct.

A

According to the river continuum, the main energy source for

A) small head streams is CPOM.

B) small head streams is FPOM.

C) small head streams is phytoplankton.

D) large rivers is phytoplankton.

E) large rivers is CPOM.

C

All of the following statements concerning the hydrologic cycle are true except:

A) It is powered by solar energy.

B) Flux is determined by evaporation.

C) Transpiration is not involved.

D) Reservoirs include lakes, rivers, oceans, and ice.

E) None of the choices are correct.

A

In general, reptiles are considered to be a/an?

A) poikilotherm

B) homeotherm

C) endotherm

D) heterotherm

E) two of the choices are correct

B

All of the following statements are true concerning temperate lakes except:

A) Fall and spring turnovers involve vertical mixing of temperature stratified waters.

B) During fall and spring turnover, the oxygen rich hypolimnion moves up to the epilimnion.

C) During late fall and early spring, a temperate lake has a uniform water temperature.

D) During the year, the hypolimnion's temperature does not change.

E) Fall and spring turnovers involve the wind.

B

Metabolic heat (Hm) is the heat

A) energy intake an organism must have for movement.

B) released during cellular respiration.

C) energy needed in order to undergo cellular respiration.

D) energy loss due to evaporation.

E) None of the choices are correct.

B

Aquatic organisms whose body fluids equal that of their surroundings are

A) hyperosmotic.

B) isoosmotic.

C) hypoosmotic.

D) osmotic.

E) None of the choices are correct.

C

It's a hot summer day, and you begin to sweat. What is the method of heat exchange?

A) conduction

B) convection

C) evaporation

D) radiation

None of the choices are correct.

C

Nalini Nadkarni's study of tropical and temperate rain forests determined that

A) rain forests have nutrient rich soils.

B) the herbaceous layer determines the nutrient balance.

C) epiphyte mats contain a significant source of nutrients.

D) as one moves up the canopy, species richness decreases.

E) None of the choices are correct.

E

The Northern and Southern Hemispheres receive approximately equal amounts of solar radiation on the

A) spring equinox.

B) northern summer solstice.

C) autumnal equinox.

D) southern winter solstice.

E) both spring equinox and autumnal equinox

D

An ecosystem is defined as

A) all the organisms that live in an area.

B) the physical environment with which organisms interact.

C) an association of interacting species.

D) all of the organisms that live in an area and the physical environment with which they interact.

E) all of the individuals of a single species that live in an area and the physical environment with which they interact.

D

Robert MacArthur's observations on the Warblers of North America indicate that they

A) are fiercely competitive.

B) cannot coexist.

C) reduce competition by feeding during different times of the day.

D) reduce competition by feeding in different zones.

both are fiercely competitive and cannot coexist.

A

Getting up from your chair you realize that it is warm. What is the method of heat exchange?

A) conduction

B) convection

C) evaporation

D) radiation

E) None of the choices are correct.

E

How are the studies performed on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and the moss Pleurozium schreberi and the desert shrub Atriplex lentiformis similar?

A) Both studies examine the effects of microclimates.

B) Both studies support the concept that species operate within a narrow optimum temperature range.

C) Both studies are coupled to enzymatic activity.

D) Both studies examine the effects of microclimates and studies support the concept that species operate within a narrow optimum temperature range.

E) Both studies support the concept that species operate within a narrow optimum temperature range and are coupled to enzymatic activity.

D

The potential for evaporative water loss by terrestrial organisms

A) decreases with increased vapor pressure deficit.

B) decreases with decreased vapor pressure deficit.

C) increases with decreased vapor pressure deficit.

D) increases with increased vapor pressure deficit.

E) None of the choices are correct.

D

In order to survive in the desert, a camel will employ which of the following mechanisms?

A) face away from sun

B) store water in its hump

C) shed its fur

D) allow its body temperature to rise

E) All of the choices are correct.

B

In general, a plant located in an arid climate will possess all of the following in order to prevent water loss except:

A) waxy coating.

B) decreased root biomass.

C) decreased shoot biomass.

D) increased root length.

E) reduces leaf size.

A

What is ecology?

A) the study of relationships between organisms and the environment

B) the study of animal and plant population interactions

C) the study of the abiotic portion of the environment

D) the study of the biosphere

E) the study of environmental change

D

Earth's climatic variation is due to

A) the spherical shape of the earth.

B) earth's axial rotation as it orbits the sun.

C) uneven heating of the earth's surface.

D) All of the choices are correct.

E) None of the choices are correct.

C

Physiological ecologists study

A) nutrient cycling and energy flow through ecosystems.

B) exchanges of materials, energy, and organisms between communities.

C) physiological and anatomical mechanisms by which organisms deal with variation in their physical and chemical environment.

D) physiological and anatomical mechanisms by which organisms deal with variation in their social environment.

E) None of the choices are correct.

E

A desert scorpion will use all of the following mechanisms in order to survive in the desert except:

A) waterproof cuticle.

B) nocturnal behavior.

C) burrowing.

D) decreased metabolic rate.

E) None of the choices are correct.

A

A population can be defined as

A) a group of individuals of a single species inhabiting a defined area.

B) an association of interacting species.

C) a group of individuals of a single species and all of the physical and chemical factors influencing them.

D) all of the organisms in a defined area.

E) None of the choices are correct.

A

Movement of water _____________ its concentration gradient is called ________________.

A) down; diffusion

B) up; diffusion

C) down; active transport

D) up; osmosis

E) None of the choices are correct.

D

Which of the following terrestrial biomes are maintained by fires?

A) tropical dry forests

B) temperate forests and mountains

C) Mediterranean woodlands and shrublands

D) tropical savannas and temperate grasslands

E) boreal forests and tundra

C

A biome is characterized primarily by

A) flora and fauna.

B) temperature and moisture.

C) climate and predominate plant types.

D) global weather patterns.

E) None of the choices are correct.

A

Climatic diagrams provide all of the following information except:

A) wind patterns.

B) average minimum temperature above and below 0°C.

C) temperature and precipitation variations.

D) wet and dry season durations.

E) None of the choices are correct.

E

All of the following contribute to the movement of water in a terrestrial plant except:

A) transpiration.

B) drying power of the sun.

C) hydrogen bonding.

D) water potential.

E) None of the choices are correct.

C

Warm tropical air

A) is dense and sinks.

B) has a low evaporative potential.

C) cools as it ascends.

D) warms as it ascends.

E) meets cool polar air causing precipitation in the tropics.

D

Bony marine fish

A) drink sea water.

B) secrete Na+ into the surrounding water.

C) are hyperosmotic compared to the surrounding water.

D) both drink sea water and secrete Na+ into the surrounding water.

E) drink sea water, secrete Na+ into the surrounding water, and are hyperosmotic compared to the surrounding water.

E

The effects of currents in streams include all of the following except

A) organism size.

B) organism shape.

C) organism behavior.

D) oxygen content.

E) None of the choices are correct.

C

Eutrophic lakes are characterized by

A) high oxygen content.

B) cool temperatures.

C) high nutrient levels.

D) deep and clear waters.

E) low biological productivity.

E

All of the following are components that influence a microclimate except:

A) burrows.

B) vegetation.

C) ground color.

D) topography.

E) None of the choices are correct.

D

The evaporative water loss by an organism is high when the

A) vapor pressure deficit is low.

B) relative humidity is high.

C) water concentration gradient from the organism to the air is reduced.

D) actual water vapor density is very low relative to the saturation water vapor density.

E) All of the choices are correct.

C

Small head streams can be characterized by all of the following components except:

A) energy source CPOM.

B) clear.

C) low oxygen content.

D) cool.

E) None of the choices are correct.

D

According to Kidron, Barzilay, and Sachs' research on the dune slopes of the Negev Desert, moss would most likely be found on _________ facing slopes due to _________.

A) south; decreased evaporation rates

B) south; increased evaporation rates

C) north; increased evaporation rates

D) north; decreased evaporation rates

E) Moss does not grow in the Negev Desert.

E

The low productivity of arctic tundra ecosystems results

A) entirely because tundra has low evapotranspiration.

B) entirely because tundra soils are low in nutrients.

C) entirely because tundra soils retain water poorly.

D) because tundra soils have low nutrients and retain water poorly.

E) because tundra has low evapotranspiration and low-nutrient soils.

C

The "trophic cascade hypothesis" emphasizes the role of

A) nutrients in controlling primary productivity.

B) nutrients in controlling primary consumption.

C) consumers in controlling primary productivity.

D) grazing by herbivores in controlling ecosystem nutrient levels.

E) primary productivity in controlling primary and secondary consumption.

A

Clearcutting at Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest sharply

A) increased export of nitrate (NO3-) in stream water.

B) decreased export of nitrate (NO3-) in stream water.

C) increased rates of denitrification in soils.

D) decreased deposition of ammonia (NH3) from the atmosphere.

E) increased deposition of ammonia (NH3) from the atmosphere.

D

An organism's _________ describes its feeding position within an ecosystem.

A) prey level

B) production level

C) consumption level

D) trophic level

E) predator level

D

The end product of biological nitrogen fixation is

A) N2.

B) NO3-.

C) NO2-.

D) NH3.

E) None of the choices are correct.

E

Herbivores, carnivores, and detritivores are all

A) omnivores.

B) autotrophs.

C) animals.

D) browsers.

E) heterotrophs.

B

In Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, the largest "standing stock" of energy is represented by biomass of

A) living plant tissues.

B) dead plant tissues.

C) invertebrate herbivores.

D) vertebrate herbivores.

E) vertebrate carnivores.

C

"Nitrification" is the conversion of

A) carbon compounds to nitrogen compounds.

B) nitrogen gas (N2) to ammonia (NH2).

C) ammonium (NH4+) to nitrate (NO3-).

D) ammonia (NH3) to nitrogen gas (N2).

E) ammonium (NH4+) to nitrite (NO2-).

D

Nitrogen enrichment of ecosystems by human activity is largely driven by

A) addition of nitrogen fertilizers.

B) nitrogen pollution from burning of fossil fuels.

C) nitrogen fixation by bacteria in landfills.

D) Both addition of nitrogen fertilizers and nitrogen pollution from burning of fossil fuels.

E) Both addition of nitrogen fertilizers and nitrogen fixation by bacteria in landfills.

A

The terrestrial ecosystems with highest primary production are usually those that are

A) warm and wet.

B) warm and dry.

C) cool and wet.

D) cool and dry.

E) intermediate in both temperature and moisture.

C

The kingdom that contains the most trophic diversity:

A) Plantae

B) Animalia

C) Monera

D) Fungi

E) Protista

C

In aquatic ecosystems, leaves with high lignin content decompose

A) rapidly because lignin is a nutrient-rich compound.

B) rapidly because lignin enhances colonization by decomposing fungi.

C) slowly because lignin reduces colonization by decomposing fungi.

D) slowly because lignin is a carbon-poor compound.

E) slowly because lignin-containing leaves sink rapidly.

D

The rate of decomposition of leaf litter in woodlands can be strongly influenced by

A) moisture.

B) nitrogen content.

C) leaf toughness.

D) All of the choices are correct.

E) None of the choices are correct.

D

Leibig's "Law of the Minimum" stated that

A) the lowest primary productivity occurs in the coldest ecosystems.

B) primary productivity is typically controlled entirely by climate.

C) primary productivity is typically controlled by both climate and soil nutrients.

D) a single soil nutrient typically limits primary productivity.

E) the highest primary productivity occurs at the lowest trophic level.

D

The rate of energy intake by an organism can be limited by

A)availability of energy in the environment.

B) foraging time.

C) handling time.

D) All of the choices are correct.

E) both availability of energy in the environment and foraging time.

B

A major perturbation of the carbon cycle by human activity is associated with

A) release of carbon from carbonate rocks.

B) release of carbon from fossil fuel deposits.

C) removal of carbon from the atmosphere in the industrial production of fertilizers.

D) accelerated removal of carbon from the atmosphere by forests.

E) respiratory production of CO2 by the large human population.

B

Nitrifying bacteria, Nitrosomonas, and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria

A) are both heterotrophs.

B) are both chemoautotrophs.

C) are both parasitic.

D) use reduction as an energy yielding process.

E) All of the choices are correct.

C

Müllerian and Batesian mimicries differ from one another because

A) in Müllerian mimicry, the mimic is actually harmless.

B) in Müllerian mimicry, the model is actually harmless.

C) Müllerian mimicry is a form of comimicry.

D) Müllerian mimicry is a form of camouflage.

E) None of the choices are correct.

E

Phosphorus is an important constituent of

A) DNA.

B) bone tissue.

C) RNA.

D) ATP.

E) All of the choices are correct.

C

C4 and CAM plants are best suited for

A) hot and moist environments.

B) cool and moist environments.

C) hot and dry environments.

D) cool and dry environments.

E) environments with moderate temperatures and moisture levels.

Littoral zone

Shallow water zone, light penetrates to bottom.

Limnetic zone

Open, sunlit water surface.

Profundal zone

Deep, open water too dark for photosynthesis.

Benthic zone

Substrate, bottom of lakes.

Eutrophy

Well nourished, oxygen poor waters.

Oligotrophy

Nutrient poor, oxygen rich waters.

Mesotrophic

In between Eutrophic and Oligotrophic.

E

Which of the following is not considered a form of plant defense?

A) silica

B) thorns

C) cellulose

D) phenolic compounds

E) All the choices mentioned are plant defenses.

A

Which of the following are nitrogen fixing organisms?

A) cyanobacteria

B) leguminous plants

C) alders

D) All of the choices are correct.

E) both cyanobacteria and leguminous plants

A

Primary production is lowest in which ecosystem?

A) creosote bush desert

B) annual grassland

C) subalpine forest

D) temperate deciduous forest

E) tropical forest

D

During the light dependent portion of photosynthesis, the energy found in photons is converted/transferred to

A) ATP

B) NADPH

C) PEP

D) both ATP and NADPH

E) ATP, NADPH, and PEP

E

Pocket gophers change the nitrogen cycle in prairies because they
A) excavate nitrogen-rich subsoil to the surface.

B) selectively remove nitrogen-fixing legumes from plant communities.

C) bury nitrogen-rich organic material in their burrows.

D) cultivate nitrogen-fixing bacteria in burrow chambers.

E) excavate nitrogen-poor subsoil to the surface.

A

Transpiration rates are highest in ____ plants.

A) C3

B) C4

C) CAM

D) C4 and CAM

E) C3, C4, and CAM

C

Which of the following is NOT an assumption of the t-test?

A) Each sample is drawn from a population with a normal distribution.

B) The two populations being compared have equal variances.

C) The two populations being compared have equal means.

D) All of each sample is drawn from a population with a normal distribution, the two populations being compared have equal variances, and the two populations being compared have equal means are assumptions.

E) None of each sample is drawn from a population with a normal distribution, the two populations being compared have equal variances, and the two populations being compared have equal means are assumptions.

A

In aquatic ecosystems, the major agents of decomposition are

A) aquatic fungi.

B) bacteria.

C) algae.

D) detritivorous fish.

E) piscivorous fish.

E

In general, among solitary predators, ________________ is/are most often the determining factor in prey selection.

A) age

B) speed

C) numbers

D) health

E) size

D

On the Serengeti plain of eastern Africa, large grazing mammals consume what fraction of total primary production?

A) a negligibly small amount

B) about 10%

C) about 25%

D) about 66%

E) nearly all

E

Which of the following organisms use inorganic matter as their energy source?

A) photosynthesizers

B) chemosynthesizers

C) autotrophs

D) both photosynthesizers and chemosynthesizers

E) photosynthesizers, chemosynthesizers, and autotrophs

D

Which kingdom has the higher carbon to nitrogen ratios?

A) Fungi

B) Animalia

C) Monera

D) Plantae

E) Protista

C

Several studies indicate that environmental conditions dictate plant biomass allocation; plants grown in infertile soils will allocate more energy into _________________ biomass.

A) leaf

B) stem

C) root

D) flower

E) seed

B

Organisms which synthesize organic compounds using CO2 as a carbon source and inorganic chemicals as an energy source are

A) chemosynthetic heterotrophs.

B) chemosynthetic autotrophs.

C) photosynthetic autotrophs.

D) photosynthetic heterotrophs.

E) None of the choices are correct.

C

Which of the following is the correct relationship between gross primary production (GPP), net primary production (NPP), and respiration (RESP)?

A) GPP = NPP - RESP

B) RESP = GPP + NPP

C) NPP = GPP - RESP

D) NPP = GPP + RESP

E) None of the choices are correct.

B

Fungi and bacteria release nitrogen stored in dead tissue through a decomposition process called

A) nitrogen fixation.

B) ammonification.

C) denitrification.

D) nitrification.

E) nitrogen assimilation.

D

Among lakes, primary productivity seems to be mainly controlled by levels of

A) light.

B) pollutants.

C) temperature.

D) nutrients.

E) None of the choices are correct.

B

How are C4 plants and CAM (crassulacean acid metabolism) plants similar?

A) They both open their stomata at night.

B) They both initially fix carbon into a four carbon molecule.

C) They both use more water to fix carbon into an organic compound than C3 plants.

D) They both have bundle sheath cells.

E) Both carbon fixation and PGA production occurs in mesophyll cells.

B

The main force in the development and refinement of prey defenses is/are

A) nutrition.

B) predators.

C) the prey themselves.

D) mate choices.

E) All of the choices are correct.

D

In Judy Meyer and Gene Likens' study of phosphorus in Bear Brook,

A) most phosphorus inputs occurred during spring snowmelt.

B) phosphorus inputs were nearly constant over the year.

C) most phosphorus losses occurred during autumn leaf fall.

D) most phosphorus losses occurred during storms and snowmelt.

E) phosphorus losses were nearly constant over the year.

C

Nitrogen fixation is an energy-demanding process because of the strong _____ bond between the two nitrogen atoms in the N2 molecule.

A) single covalent

B) double covalent

C) triple covalent

D) ionic

E) hydrogen

D

"Actual evapotranspiration" for an ecosystem refers to the amount of water that

a) is taken up from soils by plant roots.

b) evaporates from soils.

C) is transpired by plants.

D) evaporates from soils plus the amount transpired by plants.

E) could evaporate from soils, if they were kept wet at all times.

A

In order for terrestrial plants to undergo photosynthesis and produce a six carbon sugar, which of the following metabolic pathways must occur?

A)C3

B) C4

C) CAM (crassulacean acid metabolism)

D) both C3 and C4

E) both C4 and CAM (crassulacean acid metabolism)

D

Nitrogen stable isotopes are useful tools for the study of food web structure because isotope ratios

A) change in predictable ways across trophic levels.

B) often vary among alternative food sources for a consumer.

C) for a predator exactly match the isotope ratio in its prey.

D) both change in predictable ways across trophic levels and often vary among alternative food sources for a consumer.

A

Actual evapotranspiration rates are highest in ____________ climates.

A) warm, moist

B) cold, moist

C) warm, dry

D) cold, dry

E) actual evapotranspiration rate is not affected by climate

A

In Stephen Carpenter and colleagues' manipulations of lake food webs, increased densities of adult largemouth bass led to

A) increased rates of grazing on phytoplankton by zooplankton.

B) decreased rates of grazing on phytoplankton by zooplankton.

C) increased population sizes of planktivorous fish.

D) increased consumption of zooplankton by planktivorous fish.

E) no noticeable effects on food web structure.

C

Carnivores that feed on herbivores (or on detritivores) are referred to as

A) primary producers.

B) primary consumers.

C) secondary consumers.

D) parasitoids.

E) keystone species.

A

The major source of nutrients in surface waters of the open ocean is

A) mixing of subsurface with surface waters.

B) deposition from the atmosphere.

C) addition by ocean currents bringing nutrients from nearshore waters.

D) decomposition of dead organic material.

E) photosynthesis by planktonic algae.

C

Nitrate is converted to molecular nitrogen, N2, in a process called

A) nitrogen fixation.

B) ammonification.

C) denitrification.

D) nitrification.

E) nitrogen assimilation.

C

Net primary productivity is the primary productivity of an ecosystem, after subtracting energy lost in

A) dead plant tissues.

B) inedible plant tissues.

C) respiration by primary producers.

D) respiration by primary consumers.

E) inefficiencies of photosynthesis.

D

A type 1 functional response curve would best represent

A) squirrels.

B) moose.

C) humans.

D) clams.

E) wolves.

A

The production of new organic matter, or biomass, by autotrophs in a system is called ____________.

A) primary production

B) primary construction

C) trophic production

D) trophic gain

E) autotrophic gain

C

The process of denitrification is

A) energy-yielding and aerobic.

B) energy-releasing and aerobic.

C) energy-yielding and anaerobic.

D) energy-releasing and anaerobic.

E) energy-neutral and anaerobic.

C

An increase about 1,000 years ago in 13C content of human collagen from archeological sites in eastern North America probably records

A) replacement of vegetables and grains in the diet by meat.

B) replacement of corn by beans and squash in the diet.

C) increasing consumption of corn.

D) increasing levels of 13C in soils.

E) increasing levels of 13C in the atmosphere.

A

In Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, the fraction of available solar energy fixed by primary producers is

A) approximately 2%.

B) approximately 15%.

C) approximately 50%.

D) nearly all of it.

E) Primary producers do not fix solar energy.

B

In ______ plants CO2 is fixed in the mesophyll cells using PEP carboxylase while sugar production occurs in the bundle sheath cells.

A) C3

B) C4

C) CAM

D) C4 and CAM

E) C3, C4, and CAM

C

The largest reservoir of phosphorus in most ecosystems is phosphorus

A) in the atmosphere.

B) dissolved in water.

C) in rocks and sediments.

D) bound in animal tissues.

E) bound in plant tissues.

B

The photosynthetic response curve is most similar to

A) type 1 functional response curve.

B) type 2 functional response curve.

C) type 3 functional response curve.

D) None of the choices are correct.

C

Spiraling length of nutrients in streams can be calculated as S = VT. In this equation,

A) V represents nutrient concentration, and T represents water temperature.

B) V represents the speed of water flow, and T represents water temperature.

C) V represents the speed of water flow, and T represents the time required for nutrients to cycle.

D) V represents nutrient retentiveness, and T represents the time required for nutrients to cycle.

E) V represents nutrient retentiveness, and T represents species diversity.

A

Which of the following is NOT an agent of nitrogen fixation?

A) mycorrhizal fungi

B) cyanobacteria (blue-green algae)

C) bacteria associated with legume roots

D) lightning

E) actinomycete bacteria associated with alder roots

D

The rate of primary production on the Serengeti grassland is positively correlated with

A) rainfall.

B) moderate grazing.

C) high-intensity grazing.

D) both rainfall and moderate grazing.

E) both rainfall and high-intensity grazing.

B

Experimental fertilizations in the Baltic Sea suggest that primary productivity there is normally limited by

A) phosphorus.

B) nitrogen.

C) iron.

D) potassium.

E) temperature.

Igneous

Cooling volcanic flows

Sedimentary

Deposition of sediments

Metamorphic

Altered by heat and pressure

Ecotone

Area between biomes

Desert

Recieves less than 20 cm of annual rainfall
Little to no vegatation

Temperate grassland

Prairie, steppe, pampas or veldt
No trees

Savannas

Vast expanses of grassess interspersed with some trees and shrubs

Temperate deciduous forests

Lie between 40 and 50 latitude
Warm summers and cool winters

Forests

Taiga or Boreal

Ernst Haeckel

Coined the term Ecology

Humboldt

30 volume work on voage of spanish america

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