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Medieval

The Middle Ages covers the period of European history from 476-1492 AD Ex. Medieval means "of the Medieval Ages"

Dark Ages

the early part of the Middle Ages, which took place between 500-1000 AD Ex. The people of Europe turned to knights and the Catholic Church for safety during the dark ages.

Feudalism

a system based on ownership of land Ex. Feudalism developed as a system of protection from barbarian invasions in Europe.

Fief

under the feudal system, a piece of land granted by a lord to a knight Ex. In return for land, knights paid military service to their lords

Manor

a house and the land surrounding it, owned by a noble Ex. When squires were turned into knights, their special ceremony was held here.

Noble

Lords and Ladies Ex. To become a knight you would have to be the son of a nobleman

Vikings

Scandinavian raiders who lived by attacking coastal settlements and plundering them Ex. The Vikings "discovered" North America around 1000 C.E.

Serf

a landless peasant, who is at the bottom of the feudal system Ex. A serf is under control of its landowner.

Monasteries

a residence for monks who devoted their lives to the church

Convent

a home for nuns Ex. A convent was a little bit different from a monastery.

Assimilated

to be integrated into a culture Ex. The barbarians were assimilated into European culture.

Crusades

holy wars between Roman Catholics and Muslims for control of Jerusalem Ex. There were 8 crusades.

Christendom

the area in which Christianity was practiced Ex. The area was in Europe in the Middle Ages.

Barbarians

people who live on the edges of civilizations and want to share in the good things of civilized living Ex. After the dark ages the barbarian threat ended.

Lord

a nobleman who owned land Ex. A lord let a serf live on his land and use it.

Vassal

a person who swore loyalty Ex. A serf became a vassal to a nobleman.

Chivalry

the way of life of medieval knights Ex. Chivalry made the knight promise to defend the church and to be well-mannered toward the ladies.

Knight

a soldier trained to fight on horseback Ex. To become a knight you would have to first be a page than a squire and prove yourself worthy, on the battlefield, of becoming a knight.

Renaissance

The time of the "rebirth" of interest in art and literature of classical Greece and Rome Ex. The renaissance put an end to the Middle Ages.

Leif Ericsson

son of Eric the Red who sailed west from Greenland and discovered Newfoundland Ex. He stayed in Newfoundland for only one winter.

Cathedrals

the churches of the local bishop

Pilgrimage Church

Christians made pilgrimages to holy sites to demonstrate their faith Ex. Rome and Santiago de Composte were the most important pilgrimage sites.

Monarchy

any type of government with a supreme leader as head Ex. In Medieval Times Kings and Queens were the supreme leaders.

Magna Carta

a paper of the rights of English people Ex. "Magna Carta" means "Great Charter" or "Great Paper"

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