Which of the following statements best describes Freud's view of human nature? A) We are like other animals in that our master motive is the satisfaction of biological needs, B) What differentiates us from other animals is our spiritual nature, C) What we are is determined mainly by the environment, D) Humans are basically gregarious, i.e., social in nature.
Paul, an aggressive child, had problems in elementary school as he would frequently fight with other children. Paul found when he entered high school that he could channel his hostility into sports such as football and soccer.
Psychosexual stage that lasts from about the 6th year to about the 12th year of life. It is a time when sexual activity is repressed and an abundance of substitute activities are engaged in, such as learning and athletics.
Belief that life cannot be explained in terms of physical events and processes along; rather, some nonphysical, vital force must be postulated.
James Riley has suffered heavy financial losses recently while playing the stock market. Upon trading his big luxury car for an old small car, Jim informed his associates that he bought the cheaper car to do his part in the battle against air pollution.
The superego consists of: A) idinal impulses, B) reality testing, C) plan of action, D) primary process, E) None of the above.
A subsystem of the superego consisting of an idealistic internal measure or standard of what one should be.
Mrs. brown often accuses other women of talking too much and spreading rumors. It is rather obvious to those who know her that she is revealing her own inclination sin that area.
The majority group of a culture may blame all the various ills of society on a small minority group. This is a process termed "scapegoating" and is a factor in racial and religious prejudice.
One psychology theory holds that the desire for sexual gratification, if frustrated or blocked, may eventually find expression in painting or the writing of poetry.
Accidentally forgetting a feared appointment is an example of which ego defense mechanism?
According to Freud, our most overwhelming experience of anxiety occurs when we are separated from our mother at birth. Freud called this experience: A) neurotic anxiety, B) moral anxiety, C) birth trauma, D) reality anxiety.
Form of a dream distortion in which one dream element represents several ideas at the same time.
more or less fixed amount of energy that Freud believed was available to drive the entire personality. According to Freud, psychic energy obeyed the principle of conservation of energy.
Which characteristic of an instinct/drive refers to the experience or object that removes or reduces the bodily deficiency?
Mrs. James can't understand why her husband has been so grumpy and irritable with her for the past week. It certainly isn't' her fault that he didn't receive the anticipated promotion at the factory. Her husband's behaviors exemplify....
cultural impact on art etc
contributions of Freud's theory: 1) demonstrated importance of anxiety, 2) psychotherapy for treating anxiety, 3) unconscious, 4) physical disorders can have non physical origins, 5) childhood conflicts have lifelong consequences, 6) children do have emotions, 7) ego defenses, 8) ________.
Defense mechanism used to satisfy an impulse with a substitute object, either because such an outlet is unavailable or because it is forbidden.
Boy's fear that he is going to lose his sex organs because they are regarded as the source of difficulty between the boy and his father.
psychotherapy for treating anxiety
contributions of Freud's theory: 1) demonstrated importance of anxiety, 2) ________, 3) unconscious, 4) physical disorders can have non physical origins, 5) childhood conflicts have lifelong consequences, 6) children do have emotions, 7) ego defenses, 8) cultural impact on art etc.
Removing the bodily deficiency, thereby reestablishing internal balance refers to which characteristic of an instinct?
A number of psychologists believe that social crusaders who advocate various forms of social control may in reality be struggling with their own unconscious desires.
Mr. Martin carried around a letter in his coat pocket for weeks. the note which he somehow neglected mailing was an invitation to his mother-in-law to visit the family for several months.
identification with the aggressor
An ego-defense mechanism postulated by Anna Freud by which the fear caused by a person is reduced or eliminated by internalizing the feared person's values and mannerisms.
Psychosexual stage of development in which the sexual drive was thought to go underground. A massive repression of the sexuality so that industrial tasks are learned during childhood.
Defense mechanism that refers to the unconscious attribution of an impulse attitude or behavior to someone else or some element in the environment.
The mother of an unwanted child may feel guilty about not welcoming her child. As a result she may try to prove her love by becoming overindulgent and overprotective of the child
Defense mechanism in which a person attempts t make up for an unacceptable behavior with another one to take its place.
A primary process activity that seeks to reduce tension by forming an image of the object which would satisfy needs.
Verbal "accident" that is thought to reveal the speaker's true feelings.
contributions of Freud's theory: 1) demonstrated importance of anxiety, 2) psychotherapy for treating anxiety, 3) ________, 4) physical disorders can have non physical origins, 5) childhood conflicts have lifelong consequences, 6) children do have emotions, 7) ego defenses, 8) cultural impact on art etc.
physical disorders can have non physical origins
contributions of Freud's theory: 1) demonstrated importance of anxiety, 2) psychotherapy for treating anxiety, 3) unconscious, 4) ________, 5) childhood conflicts have lifelong consequences, 6) children do have emotions, 7) ego defenses, 8) cultural impact on art etc.
In psychoanalysis, the process in which the analyst has an emotional reaction to the patient.
Name given to the death instinct. The source of aggression that Freud believed was self-destruction turned outward.
Reformers may conduct campaigns against pornographic literature in order to fight their own erotic interest in such material. They campaign to convince others of their won purity and goodness.
Processes available to the id for satisfaction of needs. Those processes are reflex action and wish fulfillment (hallucinations).
Resynthesizing dream elements after they have been distorted by dream work. This resynthesizing gives the distorted dream elements enough meaning to be accepted into consciousness. Also called secondary elaboration.
Substitution of one cathexis that is anxiety-provoking with one that is not. Also a form of dream distortion in which an acceptable image is substituted for an unacceptable one - for example, when one dreams of mountains instead of breasts.
Repression of those anxiety-provoking thoughts that are innately part of the id and therefore independent of personal experience.
Aggression directed toward a person or object less threatening than the one causing the aggressive impulse.
identification with the aggressor
Defense mechanism in which the person takes in the values and behaviors of a person who could be a threat in order the reduce anxiety.
The girl who was not invited to the school dance told her friends that she would not have attended if asked. she said that her teachers had assigned more homework than usual and that she was simply too busy for any unimportant social functions.
inheritance of acquired characteristics
Lamark's contention that the information learned during a person's lifetime can be passed on to that person's offspring.
According to Freud, a female child's sexuality changes from masculine to feminine when she: A) identifies with her mother, B) represses her natural sexual desires, C) fantasizes about having her father's baby, D) fantasizes about making her mother pregnant.
Freud's early contention that hysteria results from an actual sexual seduction experienced during childhood; later revised to state that most seductions were imagined rather than real.
In his youth Michael was curious about sex. Later he became a clinical therapist/researcher who specializes in sexual dysfunctions. Satisfying his sexual curiosity by conducting sophisticated research into sexual behaviors is an example of _______.
Patient's unwillingness to ponder and report anxiety-producing thoughts during the therapeutic process. Freud believed that resistance was highly informative because it suggested what were troublesome topics for the patient.
Adopting the mannerisms and appearance of a favourite sports hero is an example of which ego defense mechanism?
Mike is always trying to impress his pals with how strong and independent he has become. However, when mikes has social or emotional problems, he still wants his dad to figure out the solution
Which of the following is governed by the reality principle: A) ego-ideal, B) superego, C) ego, D) id.
Caused by real, objective sources of danger in the environment. It is the easiest type of anxiety to reduce or prevent.
Joan has discovered an amazing coincidence in relation to her attendance at school every time at test in Spanish is scheduled she oversleeps and arrives at school too late for the class.
children do have emotions
contributions of Freud's theory: 1) demonstrated importance of anxiety, 2) psychotherapy for treating anxiety, 3) unconscious, 4) physical disorders can have non physical origins, 5) childhood conflicts have lifelong consequences, 6) ________, 7) ego defenses, 8) cultural impact on art etc.
For the male, a complex that begins when a boy loves his mother and views his father as a dominant rival for her affection. For the male, it this complex is resolved when he defensively identifies with his father, thus completing the development of his superego. For the female, a complex that begins when the girl discovers she lacks a penis and blames her mother for the deficiency. For the female, it is partially resolved when she symbolically takes her father as a love object and desires a baby from him. This desire generalizes to other males, and is more completely resolved only if she ultimately gives birth to a child, especially a male child.
Final psychosexual stage and the one that follows puberty. It is a time when the full adult personality emerges and when the experiences that occurred during the pregenital stages manifest themselves.
Manifistations of repressed thoughts in everyday life such as slips of the tongue, "accidents," forgetfulness, and errors in writing and speaking.
childhood conflicts have lifelong consequences
contributions of Freud's theory: 1) demonstrated importance of anxiety, 2) psychotherapy for treating anxiety, 3) unconscious, 4) physical disorders can have non physical origins, 5) ________, 6) children do have emotions, 7) ego defenses, 8) cultural impact on art etc.
A six-year-old child, who gave up bed-wetting at the age of three, moves with his parents to a new neighborhood. During the stressful period of adjusting to his new home, he again wets the bed for several nights.
A person who is stingy, a hoarder, like a bag lady or a perfectionist would be considered to have what type of character, according to Freud?
The conjuring of an image of an object or event that is capable of satisfying a biological need.
Tory is apt to become annoyed when he recalls his earlier conviction as a peeping tom. Tory has left his sordid past behind him and is now a busy photographer for Playboy magazine.
Roger is a heavy drinker but has managed to keep his behavior a secret from is friends. He is sure that most people actually drink as much as he does.
Automatic reflexive response aimed at the removal of a source of irritation. Blinking to remove something from the eye is an example.
First psychosexual stage and the one that occurs during about the first year of life at which time the mouth is the primary erogenous zone.
Defense mechanism that refers to re-channeling a wish, the direct expression of which is socially unacceptable, into a socially desirable outlet.
In psychoanalysis, the process in which the patient projects onto the analysit emotional attitudes felt as a child.
The individual who actually likes to have others do things for him may be quick to criticize other people for being dependent and lazy.
Third psychosexual stage and the one that occurs from about the third to the fifth year of life, during which time the phallus is the primary erogenous zone. Because Freud believed the clitoris to be a small penis, he used the term phallic stage to describe the development of both male and female children.
Psychological activity of the id characterized by immediate wish fulfillment and the disregard for realistic concerns.
Using logical, rational thought to strip an idea of its emotional content exemplifies which type of ego-defense mechanism? A) Sublimation, B) Displaced aggression, C) Intellectualization, D) Rationalization, E) Reaction formation, F) Denial of reality, G) Projection.
A person who is gullible or reverts to eating a lot would be considered to have what type of character, according to Freud?
Character type that results from a fixation at the late anal stage. Such a person may suffer from constipation and may be stingy.
When we recall a dream, we describe its __________ or what it appears to be about: A) latent content, B) synthesis, C) dream work, D) manifest content.
A boy will sometimes react against the strong sexual attraction that he feels towards girls by becoming a confirmed "woman hater".
Phenomenon where-by a person performs an act while awake that he or she was instructed to perform while under hypnosis. Typically, the person is unaware of the reason for performing such an act.
The habitual drinker may insist that he really doesn't care much for the taste of alcohol but feels that the is obliged to drink with friends "just to be sociable"
denial of reality
Defense mechanism in which a person is not in touch with a part of reality. They deny that a part of reality exists.
Isolation of affect. The minimalization of the negative emotions associated with an event by a detached, logical analysis of the event.
It brings the individual in contact with real goal objects; it is the function of the personality that follows the reality principle and that operates according to secondary processes (reality testing). It uses secondary processes to formulate a plan of action. Reality testing is when different methods are used to accomplish the same goal and the best method is selected for use in the future.
Term that some critics have used to explain the male counterpart of the Oedipus complex. Freud preferred to use the Oedipus complex for both boys and girls.
In Freud&#039;s earlier writings; the psychic energy associated with the sexual instinct. Later he expanded the concept to include all the life instincts - for instance, hunger and thirst in addition to sex.
Pleasurable and conflicting feelings are associated with the genital organis; it occurs from age 3 though 5.
When displacement results in something advantageous to civilization, it is called: A) Rationalization, B) Regression, C) Reaction Formation, D) Denial of Reality, E) Projection, F) Sublimation, G) Repression.
After John was rejected by the admissions office at Yale, he claimed that he wouldn't enjoy attending such a large school anyway. Besides, he might receive higher grades at a smaller local school. This is an example of: A) sublimation, B) regression, C) rationalization, D) repression, E) displacement, F) reaction formation, G) projection.
A function of the personality that represents interjected and internalized values, ideals and moral standards. The superego defines the personal philosophy by dictating what is right and wrong morally for the individual. The superego strives for perfection; thus, it is rigid and unrealistic.
Giving a rational, logical (but incorrect) excuse for behavior or thoughts that otherwise would cause anxiety.
Principle governing the ego that causes it to do commerce with the environment in a way that satisfies both the id and the superego.
The removal of a bodily deficiency constitutes the __________ of an instinct: A) impetus, B) source, C) aim, D) object.
Four types of energy in Freud's model of personality: 1) cathexis, 2) anticathexis, 3) _________, 4) thanatos/aggressive drive.
Defense mechanism in which a person reduces anxiety by modeling his or her behavior after that of someone else, and the process whereby the child resolves the Oedipus complex by incorporating the parent's ideals (mores into the self.
Unconscious processes that falsify or distort reality to reduce or prevent anxiety.
Which characteristic of an instinct/drive is determined by the magnitude of a bodily deficiency?
Margaret is convinced that she received a "C" in her chemistry class instead of an "a" because of widespread cheating by her fellow students. She is sure that she must be as capable in the chemistry course as in her other subjects.
Mary has secretly disliked her mother since she was a young child. As these feelings arouse anxiety, Mary usually tells friends that she loves her mother very much.
overemphasis on sexuality
criticisms of Freud&#039;s theory: 1) nebulous terminology - no operational definitions, 2) mostly untestable, 3) chauvinistic, 4) ________, 5) pessimistic view of human nature.
denial of reality
Some potentially anxiety-provoking aspect of reality is denied despite abundant information testifying to its existence.
Reality anxiety is: A) the most difficult, if not impossible, type of anxiety to reduce, B) the fear of being punished by others for impulsive actions, C) the internal punishment (guilt) experienced when the dictates of one's superego are violated, D) caused by real environmental dangers.
Series of developmental stages through which all people pass as they move from infancy to adulthood.
Castration anxiety refers to: A) a boy's fear that he is going to lose his sex organs, B) a boy's hostility toward his father, C) a boy's hostility toward his mother, D) a boy's identification with his mother.
Hedonistic principle governing the id that demands the immediate reduction of any tension associated with an unsatisfied biological need.
__________ involves repressing objectionable thoughts and expressing their opposites: A) Sublimation, B) Intellectualization, C) Rationalization, D) Reaction formation, E) Projection, F) Denial of reality, G) Displaced aggression.
Inhibition of an anxiety-provoking thought by exaggerating its opposite. For example, a person inclined toward pornography may become a censor.
The __________ demands immediate gratification of bodily needs: A) ego, B) superego, C) ego-ideal, D) id.
demonstrated importance of anxiety
contributions of Freud's theory: 1) ________, 2) psychotherapy for treating anxiety, 3) unconscious, 4) physical disorders can have non physical origins, 5) childhood conflicts have lifelong consequences, 6) children do have emotions, 7) ego defenses, 8) cultural impact on art etc.
General term describing disorders such as paralysis of the harms or legs, loss of sensation, disturbances of sight and speech, nausea, and general confusion. Because hysteria has no known organic cause, its root is assumed to be psychological. Until Charcot, hysteria was generally assumed to be exclusively a female disease. Hystera is the Greek word for uterus.
contributions of Freud's theory: 1) demonstrated importance of anxiety, 2) psychotherapy for treating anxiety, 3) unconscious, 4) physical disorders can have non physical origins, 5) childhood conflicts have lifelong consequences, 6) children do have emotions, 7) ________, 8) cultural impact on art etc.
Four types of energy in Freud's model of personality: 1) cathexis, 2) anticathexis, 3) eros/libido, 4) _________.
For Freud, instincts were the stuff from which personality is shaped. An instinct is the cognitive reflection of a biological deficiency. Instincts have four characteristics - a source, an aim, an object, and an impetus - and can be divided into two categories - life and death.
An ego-defense mechanism by which an attempt is made to atone for, or negate, an acceptable act or thought by engaging in some form of ritualistic activity.
Phenomenon that sometimes occurs during therapy in which the therapist becomes emotional involved with a patient.
Character type that results from a fixation at the early anal stage. Such a person may have trouble with bowel control and may be overly generous.
Which ego defense mechanism is good for the individual and beneficial to society, allowing civilization to grow?
Major center for pleasure and conflict is the anus. The major conflict is toilet training.
Defense mechanism in which a person puts the responsibility of decision making into the values of a superior. the person just follows the values of the superior in order not to be held responsible.
A student forgot that his dreaded final exam in psychology was scheduled for Friday. This seemed unusual as the date of the exam has been marked on his calendar for several weeks.
Parapraxes refer to: A) praxes that are not quite real, B) the translation of mental conflicts into bodily disorders, C) the manifestation of repressed thoughts in a variety of "mistakes" in everyday life, D) the ability to see into the future.
The final psychosexual stage, in which an individual reaches sexual maturity (to love and work). the conflict is commitment versus non-commitment.
Defense mechanism that entails offering reasonable-sounding explanations for unreasonable, unacceptable behaviors.
Breuer found that Anna O.'s condition improved when she openly expressed her feelings. He referred to this phenomenon as: A) hysteria, B) free association, C) transference, D) catharsis.
Phenomenon that sometimes occurs during therapy in which a patient begins to respond to the therapist as if he or she were an important person in the patient's life, such as the patient's mother or father.
An ego-defense mechanism postulated by Anna Freud by which a person internalizes the values of another person and lives his or her life in accordance with those values
Higher intellectual functions that enable the ego to establish suitable courses of action and test them for their effectiveness.
After John was rejected by the admissions office at Yale, he claimed that he wouldn't enjoy attending such a large school anyway. Besides, he might receive higher grades at a smaller local school.
phylogenetically inherited endowment
Images we inherit that reflect the consistent experiences of our ancestors. With his acceptance of such images Freud demonstrated his acceptance of Lamarck's theory of the inheritance of acquired characteristics.
Soldiers exposed to traumatic experiences in concentration camps during wartime sometimes had amnesia and were unable to recall any part of their ordeal.
Oldest and original function of personality which includes genetic inheritance, reflex capacities, instincts and drives. It is irrational (pure, unconscious instinctual energy); it seeks pleasure no matter what the consequences.
French neurologist from whom Freud learned that one's behavior can be determined by ideas of which he or she is unaware. He also learned from this neurologist that persons could become aware of unconscious ideas if pressured to do so.
David Walters recently lost his executive position in a large corporation. Rather than seek a new job, David finds comfort and escape through drinking, as alcohol helps him forget the details of being fired.
Attributing your own thoughts to someone else is an example of which ego defense mechanism?
The way in which the ego satisfies the impulse of the id in an appropriate manner in the external world.
Ego-defense mechanism by which anxiety-provoking thoughts are held in the unconscious mind, thereby preventing a conscious awareness of them.
A concept in which there is an arrest of growth, and excessive needs characteristic of an earlier stage are created by overindulgence or undue frustration. Libidinal energy remains devoted to an earlier stage of life.
Four types of energy in Freud's model of personality: 1) cathexis, 2) _________, 3) eros/libido, 4) thanatos/aggressive drive.
criticisms of Freud&#039;s theory: 1) nebulous terminology - no operational definitions, 2) ________, 3) chauvinistic, 4) overemphasis on sexuality, 5) pessimistic view of human nature.
Repression of those anxiety-provoking thoughts that result from painful experiences in one's lifetime.
Adults who were sexually molested during childhood often report that all the details of the painful episode have been forgotten.
principle of conservation of energy
Principle stating that the amount of energy within a system remains constant. Although the amount of energy in a system cannot be increased or decreased, it can be rearranged and transformed freely within the system.
French neurologist from whom Freud learned that physical disorders could have a psychological origin and that hysteria must, therefore, be taken seriously as a disease.
nebulous terminology - no operational definitions
criticisms of Freud's theory: 1) ________, 2) mostly untestable, 3) chauvinistic, 4) overemphasis on sexuality, 5) pessimistic view of human nature.
The key defense mechanism which entails blocking a wish or desire from expression, so that it cannot be experienced consciously or directly expressed in behavior.
The young wife, after a bitter conflict with her husband, gives up marriage as a failure and returns to the home of her parents. She again takes on the role of the dependent child who expects unlimited love and indulgence.
Even a top baseball player will sometimes strike out on an easy pitch. when this happens, his next action may be to throw his bad or kick the water cooler with all his might
A person cannot accept the fact that he or she has a terminal illness. What defense mechanism is this person using? A) Projection, B) Sublimation, C) Rationalization, D) Intellectualization, E) Denial of Reality, F) Reaction Formation, G) Displaced Aggression.
Psychological representation of an inner bodily source of excitement characterized by its source, impetus, aim and object.
A person who makes biting, sarcastic remarks would be considered to have what type of character, according to Freud?
State of information that is in the unconscious mind but has not been repressed. Such information enters consciousness easily when it is needed.
Billy always teases and annoys his younger brother after he himself is disciplined by his parents.
Emotional release that occurs when an idea is brought to consciousness and is allowed expression. Physical disorders are often relieved following this release.
Soldiers exposed to traumatic experiences in concentration camps during wartime sometimes had amnesia and were unable to recall any part of their ordeal. This exemplifies: A) Displacement, B) Regression, C) Reaction Formation, D) Projection, E) Rationalization, F) Repression, G) Sublimation.
Defense mechanism in which the emotional magnitude is decreased by interjecting more of an intellectual analysis of the situation.
Second psychosexual stage that occurs about the second year of life during which time the anal area is the primary erogenous zone.
Women with strong sexual drive may feel that most other women exhibit flirtatious behavior or wear revealing clothes.
Physician who became Freud's close friend and coauthored Studies on Hysteria. He was the first to use the "talking cure" while treating hysteria, which later evolved into Freud's technique of free association.
Ego-defense mechanism my which an anxiety-provoking thought is attributed to someone or something else instead of recognizing it as one's own.
Component of the personality that is completely unconscious and contains all the instincts. It is the animalistic portion of the personality that is governed by the pleasure principle.
Four types of energy in Freud's model of personality: 1) _________, 2) anticathexis, 3) eros/libido, 4) thanatos/aggressive drive.
That portion of the superego that results from the internalized experiences for which a child has been rewarded. This component of the personality is responsible for the experience of success and pride.
Character type that results from a fixation at the late oral stage. Such a person is orally aggressive and may be a fingernail biter and sarcastic.
It is typical for the person who is most difficult to convince in an argument to say that everyone else is stubborn.
pessimistic view of human nature
criticisms of Freud&#039;s theory: 1) nebulous terminology - no operational definitions, 2) mostly untestable, 3) chauvinistic, 4) overemphasis on sexuality, 5) ________.
A subsystem of the superego that refers to the capacity for self-evaluation, criticism and reproach.
Major source of pleasure and potential conflicts come from the mouth, occurring approximately during the first year of life. The major conflict is weaning.
Arrested development at one of the psychosexual stages because of the under-gratification or overgratification of a need. It determines the point to which an adult regresses under stress.
Process by which the ego finds environmental experiences capable of satisfying the needs of the id or superego.
A person who is a bed wetter, or too generous would be considered to have what type of character, according to Freud?
The guilt experienced when one either does or ponders doing something that violates the values of one's superego.
In psychoanalysis, a technique in which a person verbalizes whatever comes to mind. The pressure technique is when the psychologist physically touches a patient to become a catalyst to emotional release in this process.
When a new baby arrives in the family, the older child will sometimes cry more than usual and be more insistent about receiving caresses for the parents.
Called by Freud the fundamental rule of psychoanalysis, it entails instructing the patient to say whatever comes to his or her mind no matter how irrelevant, threatening, or nonsensical it may seem.
Caused by the fear that the impulses of the id will overwhelm the ego, thereby causing the person to do something for which he or she will be punished.
According to Freud, humor is a socially acceptable way of expressing repressed anxiety-provoking thoughts, for example, thought involving sex or aggression.
Unconscious psychological conflict in which the child loves the parent of the opposite sex. The male child loves his mother and wants to eliminate his father. the conflict is resolved through the defense mechanism, identification, in which the child shares with the father in the love for the mother.
Executive of the personality whose job it is to satisfy the needs of both the id and the superego by engaging in appropriate environmental activities. It is governed by the reality principle.
A term used in two ways by Freud: 1) matching of an idinal image with its physical counterpart, and 2) the incorporation of another person's values or characteristics either to enhance one's self esteem or to minimize that person as a threat.
criticisms of Freud&#039;s theory: 1) nebulous terminology - no operational definitions, 2) mostly untestable, 3) ________, 4) overemphasis on sexuality, 5) pessimistic view of human nature.
Moral anxiety is: A) the same as objective anxiety, B) the internal punishment (guilt) experienced when the dictates of one's superego are violated, C) the fear of being punished by others for impulsive actions, D) caused by real environmental dangers.
Parents might be reassured to know that children who pull the wings off flies and jab pins in the dog may eventually find their niche in the area of dentistry of surgery.
The high school teacher was criticized by the principal for having a disruptive class. When the teacher got home that night, he argued with his wife and kicked the dog.
Realistic processes by which the ego operates to bring about true need reduction as opposed to the temporary need reduction that results from the wish fulfillments of the id.
Displacement that results in a higher cultural achievement such as when an artistic or scientific activity is substituted for sexual activity.