Psych of Personality - Ch 2 Freud

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Mostly taken from: Hergenhahn, B. R. & Olson, M. H. (2007). An Introduction to Theories of Personality (7th Edition). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall. and DeSouza, E. (2010). Manual for PSY 233 (PIP Packet # 7). Normal, IL: PIP Printing.

A

Which of the following statements best describes Freud's view of human nature? A) We are like other animals in that our master motive is the satisfaction of biological needs, B) What differentiates us from other animals is our spiritual nature, C) What we are is determined mainly by the environment, D) Humans are basically gregarious, i.e., social in nature.

displacement

Paul, an aggressive child, had problems in elementary school as he would frequently fight with other children. Paul found when he entered high school that he could channel his hostility into sports such as football and soccer.

latency stage

Psychosexual stage that lasts from about the 6th year to about the 12th year of life. It is a time when sexual activity is repressed and an abundance of substitute activities are engaged in, such as learning and athletics.

life impulses

Drives or forces that maintain life processes and assures propagation of the species.

vitalism

Belief that life cannot be explained in terms of physical events and processes along; rather, some nonphysical, vital force must be postulated.

rationalization

James Riley has suffered heavy financial losses recently while playing the stock market. Upon trading his big luxury car for an old small car, Jim informed his associates that he bought the cheaper car to do his part in the battle against air pollution.

E

The superego consists of: A) idinal impulses, B) reality testing, C) plan of action, D) primary process, E) None of the above.

defense mechanism

a procedure that wards off anxiety and prevents its conscious perception.

ego ideal

A subsystem of the superego consisting of an idealistic internal measure or standard of what one should be.

projection

Mrs. brown often accuses other women of talking too much and spreading rumors. It is rather obvious to those who know her that she is revealing her own inclination sin that area.

displacement

The majority group of a culture may blame all the various ills of society on a small minority group. This is a process termed "scapegoating" and is a factor in racial and religious prejudice.

sublimation

One psychology theory holds that the desire for sexual gratification, if frustrated or blocked, may eventually find expression in painting or the writing of poetry.

repression

Accidentally forgetting a feared appointment is an example of which ego defense mechanism?

C

According to Freud, our most overwhelming experience of anxiety occurs when we are separated from our mother at birth. Freud called this experience: A) neurotic anxiety, B) moral anxiety, C) birth trauma, D) reality anxiety.

condensation

Form of a dream distortion in which one dream element represents several ideas at the same time.

psychic energy

more or less fixed amount of energy that Freud believed was available to drive the entire personality. According to Freud, psychic energy obeyed the principle of conservation of energy.

object

Which characteristic of an instinct/drive refers to the experience or object that removes or reduces the bodily deficiency?

displacement

Mrs. James can't understand why her husband has been so grumpy and irritable with her for the past week. It certainly isn't' her fault that he didn't receive the anticipated promotion at the factory. Her husband's behaviors exemplify....

cultural impact on art etc

contributions of Freud's theory: 1) demonstrated importance of anxiety, 2) psychotherapy for treating anxiety, 3) unconscious, 4) physical disorders can have non physical origins, 5) childhood conflicts have lifelong consequences, 6) children do have emotions, 7) ego defenses, 8) ________.

displacement

Defense mechanism used to satisfy an impulse with a substitute object, either because such an outlet is unavailable or because it is forbidden.

castration anxiety

Boy's fear that he is going to lose his sex organs because they are regarded as the source of difficulty between the boy and his father.

psychotherapy for treating anxiety

contributions of Freud's theory: 1) demonstrated importance of anxiety, 2) ________, 3) unconscious, 4) physical disorders can have non physical origins, 5) childhood conflicts have lifelong consequences, 6) children do have emotions, 7) ego defenses, 8) cultural impact on art etc.

moral

Three origins of anxiety: 1) reality, 2) neurotic, 3) _________.

aim

Removing the bodily deficiency, thereby reestablishing internal balance refers to which characteristic of an instinct?

reaction formation

A number of psychologists believe that social crusaders who advocate various forms of social control may in reality be struggling with their own unconscious desires.

libido

an emotional or psychic energy derived from the biological drive of sexuality.

repression

Mr. Martin carried around a letter in his coat pocket for weeks. the note which he somehow neglected mailing was an invitation to his mother-in-law to visit the family for several months.

anxiety

The general feeling of impending danger.

reality principle

What principle rules the ego?

identification with the aggressor

An ego-defense mechanism postulated by Anna Freud by which the fear caused by a person is reduced or eliminated by internalizing the feared person's values and mannerisms.

latency period

Psychosexual stage of development in which the sexual drive was thought to go underground. A massive repression of the sexuality so that industrial tasks are learned during childhood.

dream analysis

Freud's clinical methods: 1) case study, 2) free association, 3) ________.

projection

Defense mechanism that refers to the unconscious attribution of an impulse attitude or behavior to someone else or some element in the environment.

reaction formation

The mother of an unwanted child may feel guilty about not welcoming her child. As a result she may try to prove her love by becoming overindulgent and overprotective of the child

anticathexis

Expenditure of energy to prevent a cathexis that would cause anxiety.

undoing

Defense mechanism in which a person attempts t make up for an unacceptable behavior with another one to take its place.

wish fulfillment

A primary process activity that seeks to reduce tension by forming an image of the object which would satisfy needs.

consciousness

The thoughts, feelings and wishes that a person is aware of at any given moment.

undoing

Giving flowers after infidelity is an example of which ego defense mechanism?

Freudian slip

Verbal "accident" that is thought to reveal the speaker's true feelings.

unconscious

contributions of Freud's theory: 1) demonstrated importance of anxiety, 2) psychotherapy for treating anxiety, 3) ________, 4) physical disorders can have non physical origins, 5) childhood conflicts have lifelong consequences, 6) children do have emotions, 7) ego defenses, 8) cultural impact on art etc.

physical disorders can have non physical origins

contributions of Freud's theory: 1) demonstrated importance of anxiety, 2) psychotherapy for treating anxiety, 3) unconscious, 4) ________, 5) childhood conflicts have lifelong consequences, 6) children do have emotions, 7) ego defenses, 8) cultural impact on art etc.

counter-transference

In psychoanalysis, the process in which the analyst has an emotional reaction to the patient.

id, ego, superego

Parts of Freud's structural model of personality that use cathexis.

thanatos

Name given to the death instinct. The source of aggression that Freud believed was self-destruction turned outward.

reaction formation

Reformers may conduct campaigns against pornographic literature in order to fight their own erotic interest in such material. They campaign to convince others of their won purity and goodness.

primary processes

Processes available to the id for satisfaction of needs. Those processes are reflex action and wish fulfillment (hallucinations).

secondary revision

Resynthesizing dream elements after they have been distorted by dream work. This resynthesizing gives the distorted dream elements enough meaning to be accepted into consciousness. Also called secondary elaboration.

displacement

Substitution of one cathexis that is anxiety-provoking with one that is not. Also a form of dream distortion in which an acceptable image is substituted for an unacceptable one - for example, when one dreams of mountains instead of breasts.

primal repression

Repression of those anxiety-provoking thoughts that are innately part of the id and therefore independent of personal experience.

displaced aggression

Aggression directed toward a person or object less threatening than the one causing the aggressive impulse.

identification with the aggressor

Defense mechanism in which the person takes in the values and behaviors of a person who could be a threat in order the reduce anxiety.

rationalization

The girl who was not invited to the school dance told her friends that she would not have attended if asked. she said that her teachers had assigned more homework than usual and that she was simply too busy for any unimportant social functions.

reality

Three origins of anxiety: 1) _________, 2) neurotic, 3) moral.

inheritance of acquired characteristics

Lamark's contention that the information learned during a person's lifetime can be passed on to that person's offspring.

TRUE

True or False: Freudian theory can be criticized for being internally inconsistent.

cathexis

Investment of psychic energy in the image of an object that will satisfy a need.

C

According to Freud, a female child's sexuality changes from masculine to feminine when she: A) identifies with her mother, B) represses her natural sexual desires, C) fantasizes about having her father's baby, D) fantasizes about making her mother pregnant.

secondary theory

Freud's early contention that hysteria results from an actual sexual seduction experienced during childhood; later revised to state that most seductions were imagined rather than real.

sublimation

In his youth Michael was curious about sex. Later he became a clinical therapist/researcher who specializes in sexual dysfunctions. Satisfying his sexual curiosity by conducting sophisticated research into sexual behaviors is an example of _______.

resistance

Patient's unwillingness to ponder and report anxiety-producing thoughts during the therapeutic process. Freud believed that resistance was highly informative because it suggested what were troublesome topics for the patient.

identification

Adopting the mannerisms and appearance of a favourite sports hero is an example of which ego defense mechanism?

regression

Mike is always trying to impress his pals with how strong and independent he has become. However, when mikes has social or emotional problems, he still wants his dad to figure out the solution

C

Which of the following is governed by the reality principle: A) ego-ideal, B) superego, C) ego, D) id.

reality anxiety

Caused by real, objective sources of danger in the environment. It is the easiest type of anxiety to reduce or prevent.

repression

Joan has discovered an amazing coincidence in relation to her attendance at school every time at test in Spanish is scheduled she oversleeps and arrives at school too late for the class.

children do have emotions

contributions of Freud's theory: 1) demonstrated importance of anxiety, 2) psychotherapy for treating anxiety, 3) unconscious, 4) physical disorders can have non physical origins, 5) childhood conflicts have lifelong consequences, 6) ________, 7) ego defenses, 8) cultural impact on art etc.

Oedipus complex

For the male, a complex that begins when a boy loves his mother and views his father as a dominant rival for her affection. For the male, it this complex is resolved when he defensively identifies with his father, thus completing the development of his superego. For the female, a complex that begins when the girl discovers she lacks a penis and blames her mother for the deficiency. For the female, it is partially resolved when she symbolically takes her father as a love object and desires a baby from him. This desire generalizes to other males, and is more completely resolved only if she ultimately gives birth to a child, especially a male child.

genital stage

Final psychosexual stage and the one that follows puberty. It is a time when the full adult personality emerges and when the experiences that occurred during the pregenital stages manifest themselves.

regression

Returning to an earlier stage of development when stress is encountered.

parapraxes

Manifistations of repressed thoughts in everyday life such as slips of the tongue, "accidents," forgetfulness, and errors in writing and speaking.

childhood conflicts have lifelong consequences

contributions of Freud's theory: 1) demonstrated importance of anxiety, 2) psychotherapy for treating anxiety, 3) unconscious, 4) physical disorders can have non physical origins, 5) ________, 6) children do have emotions, 7) ego defenses, 8) cultural impact on art etc.

regression

A six-year-old child, who gave up bed-wetting at the age of three, moves with his parents to a new neighborhood. During the stressful period of adjusting to his new home, he again wets the bed for several nights.

anal retentive

A person who is stingy, a hoarder, like a bag lady or a perfectionist would be considered to have what type of character, according to Freud?

manifest dream

The dream as it is remembered the next morning.

reaction formation

Defense mechanism in which an impulse is expressed by its opposite.

wish fulfillment

The conjuring of an image of an object or event that is capable of satisfying a biological need.

sublimation

Tory is apt to become annoyed when he recalls his earlier conviction as a peeping tom. Tory has left his sordid past behind him and is now a busy photographer for Playboy magazine.

projection

Roger is a heavy drinker but has managed to keep his behavior a secret from is friends. He is sure that most people actually drink as much as he does.

identification with the aggressor

Stockholm syndrome is an example of which ego defense mechanism?

reflex action

Automatic reflexive response aimed at the removal of a source of irritation. Blinking to remove something from the eye is an example.

oral stage

First psychosexual stage and the one that occurs during about the first year of life at which time the mouth is the primary erogenous zone.

sublimation

Defense mechanism that refers to re-channeling a wish, the direct expression of which is socially unacceptable, into a socially desirable outlet.

transference

In psychoanalysis, the process in which the patient projects onto the analysit emotional attitudes felt as a child.

projection

The individual who actually likes to have others do things for him may be quick to criticize other people for being dependent and lazy.

phallic stage

Third psychosexual stage and the one that occurs from about the third to the fifth year of life, during which time the phallus is the primary erogenous zone. Because Freud believed the clitoris to be a small penis, he used the term phallic stage to describe the development of both male and female children.

aggressive drive

Self destruction turned against other people.

regression

Adult temper tantrum is an example of which ego defense mechanism?

primary process

Psychological activity of the id characterized by immediate wish fulfillment and the disregard for realistic concerns.

C

Using logical, rational thought to strip an idea of its emotional content exemplifies which type of ego-defense mechanism? A) Sublimation, B) Displaced aggression, C) Intellectualization, D) Rationalization, E) Reaction formation, F) Denial of reality, G) Projection.

oral incorporative

A person who is gullible or reverts to eating a lot would be considered to have what type of character, according to Freud?

anal-retentive character

Character type that results from a fixation at the late anal stage. Such a person may suffer from constipation and may be stingy.

D

When we recall a dream, we describe its __________ or what it appears to be about: A) latent content, B) synthesis, C) dream work, D) manifest content.

reaction formation

Lady Macbeth's hand washing is an example of which ego defense mechanism?

id

What is the source of a neurotic anxiety?

reaction formation

A boy will sometimes react against the strong sexual attraction that he feels towards girls by becoming a confirmed "woman hater".

posthypnotic suggestion

Phenomenon where-by a person performs an act while awake that he or she was instructed to perform while under hypnosis. Typically, the person is unaware of the reason for performing such an act.

rationalization

The habitual drinker may insist that he really doesn't care much for the taste of alcohol but feels that the is obliged to drink with friends "just to be sociable"

superego

Moral component of the personality that has two parts: the conscience and the ego ideal.

denial of reality

Defense mechanism in which a person is not in touch with a part of reality. They deny that a part of reality exists.

intellectualization

Isolation of affect. The minimalization of the negative emotions associated with an event by a detached, logical analysis of the event.

ego

It brings the individual in contact with real goal objects; it is the function of the personality that follows the reality principle and that operates according to secondary processes (reality testing). It uses secondary processes to formulate a plan of action. Reality testing is when different methods are used to accomplish the same goal and the best method is selected for use in the future.

electra complex

Term that some critics have used to explain the male counterpart of the Oedipus complex. Freud preferred to use the Oedipus complex for both boys and girls.

libido

In Freud's earlier writings; the psychic energy associated with the sexual instinct. Later he expanded the concept to include all the life instincts - for instance, hunger and thirst in addition to sex.

phallic stage

Pleasurable and conflicting feelings are associated with the genital organis; it occurs from age 3 though 5.

F

When displacement results in something advantageous to civilization, it is called: A) Rationalization, B) Regression, C) Reaction Formation, D) Denial of Reality, E) Projection, F) Sublimation, G) Repression.

impetus

What are the four components of a drive/instinct: 1) source, 2) _______, 3) aim, 4) object.

ego ideal

Which part of the superego rewards proper behavior with pride?

C

After John was rejected by the admissions office at Yale, he claimed that he wouldn't enjoy attending such a large school anyway. Besides, he might receive higher grades at a smaller local school. This is an example of: A) sublimation, B) regression, C) rationalization, D) repression, E) displacement, F) reaction formation, G) projection.

superego

A function of the personality that represents interjected and internalized values, ideals and moral standards. The superego defines the personal philosophy by dictating what is right and wrong morally for the individual. The superego strives for perfection; thus, it is rigid and unrealistic.

rationalization

Giving a rational, logical (but incorrect) excuse for behavior or thoughts that otherwise would cause anxiety.

reality principle

Principle governing the ego that causes it to do commerce with the environment in a way that satisfies both the id and the superego.

C

The removal of a bodily deficiency constitutes the __________ of an instinct: A) impetus, B) source, C) aim, D) object.

eros/libido

Four types of energy in Freud's model of personality: 1) cathexis, 2) anticathexis, 3) _________, 4) thanatos/aggressive drive.

identification

Defense mechanism in which a person reduces anxiety by modeling his or her behavior after that of someone else, and the process whereby the child resolves the Oedipus complex by incorporating the parent's ideals (mores into the self.

manifest content of a dream

What a dream appears to be about to the dreamer.

ego-defense mechanisms

Unconscious processes that falsify or distort reality to reduce or prevent anxiety.

object

What are the four components of a drive/instinct: 1) source, 2) impetus, 3) aim, 4) _______.

impetus

Which characteristic of an instinct/drive is determined by the magnitude of a bodily deficiency?

rationalization

Margaret is convinced that she received a "C" in her chemistry class instead of an "a" because of widespread cheating by her fellow students. She is sure that she must be as capable in the chemistry course as in her other subjects.

reaction formation

Mary has secretly disliked her mother since she was a young child. As these feelings arouse anxiety, Mary usually tells friends that she loves her mother very much.

overemphasis on sexuality

criticisms of Freud's theory: 1) nebulous terminology - no operational definitions, 2) mostly untestable, 3) chauvinistic, 4) ________, 5) pessimistic view of human nature.

denial of reality

Some potentially anxiety-provoking aspect of reality is denied despite abundant information testifying to its existence.

D

Reality anxiety is: A) the most difficult, if not impossible, type of anxiety to reduce, B) the fear of being punished by others for impulsive actions, C) the internal punishment (guilt) experienced when the dictates of one's superego are violated, D) caused by real environmental dangers.

psychosexual stages

Series of developmental stages through which all people pass as they move from infancy to adulthood.

A

Castration anxiety refers to: A) a boy's fear that he is going to lose his sex organs, B) a boy's hostility toward his father, C) a boy's hostility toward his mother, D) a boy's identification with his mother.

pleasure principle

Hedonistic principle governing the id that demands the immediate reduction of any tension associated with an unsatisfied biological need.

wishes

Desires that may be rendered unconscious if they go against a person's ego ideal.

planning, reality testing

What are the secondary processes used by the ego?

D

__________ involves repressing objectionable thoughts and expressing their opposites: A) Sublimation, B) Intellectualization, C) Rationalization, D) Reaction formation, E) Projection, F) Denial of reality, G) Displaced aggression.

reaction formation

Inhibition of an anxiety-provoking thought by exaggerating its opposite. For example, a person inclined toward pornography may become a censor.

reflexes and wish fulfillment

What are the primary processes used by the id?

D

The __________ demands immediate gratification of bodily needs: A) ego, B) superego, C) ego-ideal, D) id.

demonstrated importance of anxiety

contributions of Freud's theory: 1) ________, 2) psychotherapy for treating anxiety, 3) unconscious, 4) physical disorders can have non physical origins, 5) childhood conflicts have lifelong consequences, 6) children do have emotions, 7) ego defenses, 8) cultural impact on art etc.

hysteria

General term describing disorders such as paralysis of the harms or legs, loss of sensation, disturbances of sight and speech, nausea, and general confusion. Because hysteria has no known organic cause, its root is assumed to be psychological. Until Charcot, hysteria was generally assumed to be exclusively a female disease. Hystera is the Greek word for uterus.

ego defenses

contributions of Freud's theory: 1) demonstrated importance of anxiety, 2) psychotherapy for treating anxiety, 3) unconscious, 4) physical disorders can have non physical origins, 5) childhood conflicts have lifelong consequences, 6) children do have emotions, 7) ________, 8) cultural impact on art etc.

pride

With what does the ego ideal part of the superego reward us?

thanatos/aggressive drive

Four types of energy in Freud's model of personality: 1) cathexis, 2) anticathexis, 3) eros/libido, 4) _________.

penis envy

concept that women view themselves as castrated males and envy the penis.

latent dream

the real meaning or motive that underlies the dream that we remember.

instinct

For Freud, instincts were the stuff from which personality is shaped. An instinct is the cognitive reflection of a biological deficiency. Instincts have four characteristics - a source, an aim, an object, and an impetus - and can be divided into two categories - life and death.

undoing

An ego-defense mechanism by which an attempt is made to atone for, or negate, an acceptable act or thought by engaging in some form of ritualistic activity.

counter-transference

Phenomenon that sometimes occurs during therapy in which the therapist becomes emotional involved with a patient.

anal-expulsive character

Character type that results from a fixation at the early anal stage. Such a person may have trouble with bowel control and may be overly generous.

sublimation

Which ego defense mechanism is good for the individual and beneficial to society, allowing civilization to grow?

anal stage

Major center for pleasure and conflict is the anus. The major conflict is toilet training.

erogenous zone

Area of the body that is a source of pleasure

source

Which characteristic of an instinct/drive refers to a bodily deficiency of some kind?

altruistic surrender

Defense mechanism in which a person puts the responsibility of decision making into the values of a superior. the person just follows the values of the superior in order not to be held responsible.

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