Policies designed to protect people against arbitrary or discriminatory treatment by government officials or individuals.
the constitutional amendment adopted after the Civil War that states, "no state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws."
equal protection of the laws
a right guaranteed by the 14th amendment to the US constitution and by the due-process clause of the 5th amendment.
Scott v. Sandford
1857 Supreme Court decision that stated that any slave that has escaped to a free state enjoyed no rights as a citizen and that Congress had no authority to ban slavery in the territories.
A constitutional amendment that was ratififed after the Civil War that forbade slavery and involuntary servitude.
Plessy v. Ferguson
1896 Supreme Court decision that provided a constitutional justification for segregation by ruling that a Lousiana law requiring "equal but seperate accommodations for the White and colored races" was constitutional.
Brown v. Board of Education
1954 - The Supreme Court overruled Plessy v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal and ordered all public schools desegregated.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
The law that made racial discrimination against any group in hotels, motels, and restraunts illegal and forbade many forms of job discrimination.
The legal right to vote; was extended by the 15th, 19th, and 26th amendment.
A constitutional amendment that was adopted in 1870 that gave African Americans the right to vote.
Small taxes levied on the right to vote that often fell due at a time of year when poor African-American sharecroppers had the least cash on hand. This method was used by most Southern states to exclude African Americans from voting. Poll taxes were declared void by the Twenty-fourth Amendment in 1964.
the practice of keeping African Americans from voting in primary elections through arbitrary implementation of registration requirements and intimidation
The constitutional amendment passed in 1964 that declared poll taxes void in federal elections.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
A law that was designed to help end formal and informal barriers to African American suffrage.
Korematsu v. United States
A 1944 Supreme Court decision that upheld as constitutional the internment camps of more than 100,000 Americans of Japanese descent in encampments during World War II.
Constitutional amendment that gave women the right to vote - passed in 1920
Equal Rights Amendment
constitutional amendment passed by Congress but never ratified that would have banned discrimination on the basis of gender
Reed v. Reed
1971 1st time Supreme Court upheld a case of gender discrimination
Craig v. Boren
1976 established medium scrutiny for determining gender discrimination
Issue raised when women who hold traditionally female jobs are paid less than men for working at jobs requiring comparable skills.
Americans with Disablities Act of 1990
Law passed in 1990 that required employers and public facilities to make "reasonable accomodations for people with disablities and prohibits discrimination against these individuals in employment."
A policy designed to give special attention to or compensatory treatment for members of some previously disadvantage groups.
Regents of the University of California v. Bakke
1978 state university couldn't admit less qualified individuals solely based on race; no quotas
Adarand Constructors v. Pena
A 1995 Supreme Court decision holding that federal programs that classify people by race, even for an ostensibly benign purpose such as expanding oppurtunities for minorities, should be presumed to be uncostitutional.