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Mostly taken from: Hergenhahn, B. R. & Olson, M. H. (2007). An Introduction to Theories of Personality (7th Edition). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall. and DeSouza, E. (2010). Manual for PSY 233 (PIP Packet # 7). Normal, IL: PIP Printing.

teleology

Belief that a person's anticipations of the future must be considered if that person's personality is to be completely understood.

C

__________ explains human personality in terms of future goals: A) Synchronicity, B) Geography, C) Teleology D) Causality.

libido

According to Jung, the general life energy that can be directed to any problem that arises, bit it biological or spiritual.

self-realization

State of balance and harmony that is reached when the various components of the psyche are recognized and given expression.

intuiting

Function of thought that makes hunches about objects or events when factual information is not available. Whenever you have to deal with strange conditions where you have no established values or established concepts, you depend on this function of thought.

equivalence principle

Four elements of energy dynamics in Jung's theory: 1) libido or creative life force, 2) opposition principle, 3) _________, 4) entropy principle.

equivalence principle

Principle of energy dynamics in Jung's theory of personality that draws from the principle of the conservation of energy.

B

Which of the following caused Jung to enter his "dark years": A) the death of his wife, B) his break with Freud, C) his deteriorating health, D) the reaction of American psychologists to his theory.

principle of entropy

Second law of thermodynamics that states a constant tendency exists toward equalizing energy within a system.

value

Varies as the amount of libidinal energy invested varies. Those components of the personality that have an abundance of libidinal energy invested in them are valued more than components with less energy invested in them.

principle of opposites

Contention that each component of the psyche has an opposite.

D

What did Jung call the two general orientations the psyche could take? A) Rational functions, B) Sentiments, C) Irrational functions, D) Attitudes.

entropy principle

Principle of energy dynamics in Jung's theory of personality; that people have a natural inclination to be fully realized, that all elements of a personality have a chance to be expressed and grow.

animus

Male component of the female psyche.

archetype

A universal thought form or predisposition to perceive the world in certain ways.

emphasis on teleology in personality and behavior

Contributions of Jung's theory: 1) many original concepts (eg self realization, introversion/extroversion, archetypes), 2) _______, 3) stressed selfhood as a master motive, 4) optimistic about human destiny.

B

When one's psyche is characterized by harmony among its components, the self is said to be: A) in a Zen state, B) at the center of personality, C) destroyed, D) in Nirvana.

rational functions

Type of function that thinking and feeling are, because they involve making judgments and evaluations about experiences.

complex

An organized group of thoughts, feelings and memories about a particular concept.

archetype

Inherited predisposition to respond emotionally to certain aspects of the world. Taken together, they make up the collective unconscious.

creative illness

According to Ellenberger, a period of intense preoccupation with a search for a particular truth. This search is usually accompanied by depression, psychosomatic ailments, neuroses and perhaps psychotic episodes.

shadow

Archetype that encompasses one's animalistic and unsocial role.

middle age

Stages of development in Jung's theory: 1) childhood, 2) young adulthood, 3) _________.

Young adulthood

Stage of development that lasts from adolescence to about 40. During this time, libidinal energy is invested in learning a vocation, getting married, raising children and participating in community life.

lopsided personality

What is the result when a complex becomes too powerful and takes energy from other activities?

progression

Jung's label for the use of psychic energy to move forward.

functions of thought

Determines how a person perceives the world and deals with information and experience. The four functions of thought are sensing, thinking, feeling and intuiting.

transcendence

A process of integrating the diverse systems of the self toward the goal of wholeness and identification with all humanity.

individuation

One of the goals of life; to allow different aspects of your personality to be developed, grow and be expressed.

word association

Technique Jung used to identify complexes in the personal unconscious.

feminine traits, framework for interacting with women

What two things does the anima provide men when it is properly integrated into the psyche?

personal unconscious

Consists of material from one's lifetime that was once conscious and then repressed or material that was not vivid enough to make an initial conscious impression.

shadow

Deepest part of the collective unconscious that contains all the animalistic urges that characterized our pre-human existence.

attitudes

General orientations of the psyche when relating to the world. The two basic attitudes are introversion and extroversion.

learn skills for survival

What is the main function of the childhood stage of development in Jung's theory?

find a mate

Three functions for the young adulthood stage of development in Jung's theory: 1) learn vocation, 2) _______, 3) participate in the community.

B

Which of the functions of thought determines what an object is worth to the person: A) sensing, B) feeling, C) thinking, D) intuiting.

self

What is the centre of consciousness and awareness: psyche, ego or self?

functions

Ways of perceiving the environment.

middle age

Which stage of development did Jung regard as the most important?

individuation

In self-realization, a process whereby the systems of the individual psyche achieve their fullest degree of differentiation, expression and development.

0 to 12

Age of the childhood stage of development in Jung's theory.

self

A part of the psyche that brings all the other components together to form whole

feeling

Function of thought that determines whether an object or event is valued positively or negatively. It tells what an object is worth to the person, liked or disliked.

B

According to Jung, it is the __________ associated with the emotional experiences of our ancestors that were passed on to future generations as archetypes: A) confusion, B) myths, C) fear, D) objective realities.

future pulls us (teleology, purposive view)

Three explanations for why adult personalities develop as they do: 1) past pushes us (causality, mechanistic view), 2) _________, 3) synchronicity (meaningful coincidences).

libido or creative life force

Four elements of energy dynamics in Jung's theory: 1) _________, 2) opposition principle, 3) equivalence principle, 4) entropy principle.

psyche

Term that Jung equated with personality.

A

According to Jung, which component of personality is responsible for seeing that the functions of everyday life are carried out? A) Ego, B) Libido, C) Complexes, D) Animus.

attitude

A basic orientation to the world.

psyche

From the Greek term meaning "breath" or "principle of life" translated to "soul" or "self;" the total personality encompassing all psychological processes: thoughts, feelings, sensations.

inflation of the persona

Condition that exists when one's persona is too highly valued.

participate in the community

Three functions for the young adulthood stage of development in Jung's theory: 1) learn vocation, 2) find a mate, 3) _______.

amplification

An analytical method whereby one focuses repeatedly on an element and gives multiple associations to it.

spontaneity and creativity

What does our shadow provide when it is properly integrated into the psyche?

entropy principle

Four elements of energy dynamics in Jung's theory: 1) libido or creative life force, 2) opposition principle, 3) equivalence principle, 4) _________.

collective unconscious and archetypes

Elements of personality in Jung's theory: 1) consciousness and ego, 2) personal unconscious and complexes, 3) _________.

regression

Jung's label for occasions when psychic energy reverts back into the unconscious.

symbol

Something visible that represents something invisible / abstract. Outward manifestation of archetypes, for example).

persona

Superficial aspect of the psyche that a person displays publicly. It includes the various roles one must play to function in a society.

personal unconscious and complexes

Elements of personality in Jung's theory: 1) consciousness and ego, 2) _________, 3) collective unconscious and archetypes.

mandala

Symbol for self striving towards wholeness.

anima

Female component of the male psyche.

principle of equivalence

First law of thermodynamics that states the amount of energy in a system is fixed and, therefore, if some of it is removed from one part of the system, it must show up in another part.

A

A(n) __________ can be defined as an inherited predisposition to respond emotionally to certain categories of experience: A) archetype, B) transcendent function, C) attitude, D) complex.

preparation for the future

Two functions of dreams: 1) compensation, 2) _________.

D

Which of the functions of thought tells if an object or event is acceptable or unacceptable: A) intuiting, B) sensing, C) thinking, D) feeling.

many original concepts (eg self realization, introversion/extroversion, archetypes)

Contributions of Jung's theory: 1) _______, 2) emphasis on teleology in personality and behavior, 3) stressed selfhood as a master motive, 4) optimistic about human destiny.

thinking, feeling, sensing, intuition

List the functions in Jung's theory of personality.

feeling, thinking

List the rational functions in Jung's theory of personality.

40 to death

Age of middle age stage of development in Jung's theory.

judgment

In MBTI, the function of personality that orients towards life by preparing a plan of action.

progression, regression

The two uses of energy in Jung's theory of personality

past pushes us (causality, mechanistic view)

Three explanations for why adult personalities develop as they do: 1) _________, 2) future pulls us (teleology, purposive view), 3) synchronicity (meaningful coincidences).

overemphasizes irrationality

Criticisms of Jung's Theory: 1) non falsifiable (unscientific in Popper's view), 2) _______, 3) difficult to understand (unclear and inconsistent), 4) elitist (self actualization requires resources).

complex

Set of interrelated ideas that are highly valued and that exist in the personal unconscious.

libido

A creative life force; the driving force behind the psyche.

persona

Our social role or mask.

B

The personal unconscious contains clusters of emotionally loaded thoughts which Jung called: A) primordial images, B) complexes, C) racial memories, D) archetypes.

perception

In MBTI, the function of personality that orients towards life in a way that lets it unfold, without preordaining how it will be directed.

sensing

Function of thought that detects the presence of objects. It indicates that something is there but does not indicate what it is.

introversion, extroversion

List the attitudes in Jung's theory of personality.

causality

Belief that a person's personality can be explained in terms of past experiences.

D

For Jung, synchronicity was: A) unimportant, B) part of every religion, C) much the same as teleology, D) meaningful coincidence.

self

State of the psyche if the individuation process has been completely successful. When the various components of the psyche are harmonized, the self becomes the center of all the various opposing psychic forces. The emergence of the self, coming into selfhood, and self-realization were used synonymously by Jung.

young adulthood

Stages of development in Jung's theory: 1) childhood, 2) _________, 3) middle age.

constellation power

the power of a complex to admit new ideas into itself.

D

Attempts to empirically validate Jung's theory have concentrated mainly on his: A) archetypes, B) stages of development, C) dream analysis, D) typology.

individuation

Process whereby a person comes to recognize the various components of his or her psyche and gives them expression within the context of his or her life. A process that is prerequisite to approximating self-realization.

learn vocation

Three functions for the young adulthood stage of development in Jung's theory: 1) _______, 2) find a mate, 3) participate in the community.

thinking

Function of thought that names an object. It tells what an object is when it is sensed.

A

The __________ is the female component of the male psyche: A) anima, B) persona, C) animus, D) shadow.

inflation of the persona

When people think they ARE their persona.

opposition principle

Principle of energy dynamics in Jung's theory which is expressed by his identification of a polar opposites for every personality function.

self realization, individuation, transcendence

Three parts of life's goal, according to Jung's theory.

self-realization

A drive within the self to realize, fulfill and enhance one's maximum human potentialities.

collective unconscious

Collection of inherited predispositions that humans have to respond to certain events. These predispositions come from the universal experiences humans have had throughout their evolutionary past.

word-association test

Research technique that Jung used to explore the complexes within the personal unconscious. It consisted of reading 100 words one at a time and having a person respond as quickly as possible with a word of his or her own.

introversion

Tendency to be internally oriented, quiet, subjective and nonsocial.

B

It was disagreement concerning the nature of the _________ that Freud and Jung parted company: A) complexes, B) libido, C) soul, D) psyche.

synchronicity

Meaningful coincidence. When two independent events come together in a meaningful way.

mechanistic view

Term referring to the causal view of psychic events; that the past pushes us, which Jung said was just part of the story explaining the development of adult personality.

anima

Archetype representing the feminine side of the male personality.

extroversion

Tendency to be externally oriented, confident, outgoing, and gregarious.

compensation

Two functions of dreams: 1) _________, 2) preparation for the future.

mandala

A concentrically arranged figure often found as a symbol in the East that denotes wholeness and unity. A symbol for the emerging self.

transcendence

One of the goals of life; looking for deeper unity with others, identifying with people from other ethnicities, and identifying with the cosmos.

compensatory function

An effort to complement one's conscious side and speak for the unconscious.

masculine traits, framework for interacting with men

What two things does the animus provide women when it is properly integrated into the psyche?

D

According to Jung, Freud was a(n): A) introvert, B) neurotic, C) sexual pervert, D) extrovert.

determining meaning of life (spiritual equilibrium)

What did Jung consider the main function of middle age?

animus

Archetype representing the masculine side of the female personality.

non falsifiable (unscientific in Popper's view)

Criticisms of Jung's Theory: 1) _______, 2) overemphasizes irrationality, 3) difficult to understand (unclear and inconsistent), 4) elitist (self actualization requires resources).

optimistic about human destiny

Contributions of Jung's theory: 1) many original concepts (eg self realization, introversion/extroversion, archetypes), 2) emphasis on teleology in personality and behavior, 3) stressed selfhood as a master motive, 4) _______.

opposition principle

Four elements of energy dynamics in Jung's theory: 1) libido or creative life force, 2) _________, 3) equivalence principle, 4) entropy principle.

psyche

The equivalent of the personality in Jung's theory.

A

Jung emerged from his "dark years" with: A) his own unique theory of personality, B) a terrible hangover, C) utter despair and an inability to continue his work, D) a theory much like Freud's.

FALSE

True or False: Jung produced very little that was new in the study of personality.

childhood

Stages of development in Jung's theory: 1) _________, 2) young adulthood, 3) middle age.

B

The type of religion that Jung accepted as valid was the type that: A) only accepted the Bible as the truth, B) satisfied people's spiritual needs, C) perpetuated a specific dogma, D) was Christian.

person

Archetype referring to one's social role and the understanding of it.

12 to 40

Age of young adulthood stage of development in Jung's theory.

self realization

To be that all you can be (in Jung's theory)

synchronicity (meaningful coincidences)

Three explanations for why adult personalities develop as they do: 1) past pushes us (causality, mechanistic view), 2) future pulls us (teleology, purposive view), 3) _________.

intuition, sensing

List the non-rational functions in Jung's theory of personality

ego

"Gate keeper" to consciousness. Organization of the conscious mind, screens experiences for admission to consciousness.

elitist (self actualization requires resources)

Criticisms of Jung's Theory: 1) non falsifiable (unscientific in Popper's view), 2) overemphasizes irrationality, 3) difficult to understand (unclear and inconsistent), 4) _______.

middle age

Stage of development that lasts from about 40 to the later years of life during which time libidinal energy is invested in philosophical and spiritual pursuits. According to Jung, the stage of development is the most important.

consciousness and ego

Elements of personality in Jung's theory: 1) _________, 2) personal unconscious and complexes, 3) collective unconscious and archetypes.

stressed selfhood as a master motive

Contributions of Jung's theory: 1) many original concepts (eg self realization, introversion/extroversion, archetypes), 2) emphasis on teleology in personality and behavior, 3) _______, 4) optimistic about human destiny.

irrational functions

Jung referred to sensing and intuiting as irrational functions because they do not involve logical thought processes.

childhood

Stage of development that lasts from birth to adolescence during which time libidinal energy is invested in learning and the basic skills necessary for survival and sexual activities.

difficult to understand (unclear and inconsistent)

Criticisms of Jung's Theory: 1) non falsifiable (unscientific in Popper's view), 2) overemphasizes irrationality, 3) _______, 4) elitist (self actualization requires resources).

collective unconscious

A shared, transpersonal unconscious consisting of potential ways of being human.

A

According to Jung, the shadow: A) is a source of vitality, spontaneity, and creativity, B) should be denied expression, C) is the cause of all human maladjustment, D) is what makes humans human.

D

According to Jung, the value of something is determined by: A) a cost-benefit analysis, B) how much it costs, C) how hard it is to obtain, D) how much psychic energy is invested in it.

ego

One's conscious perception of self.

analytical psychology

The school of psychology founded by Jung.

mandala

Sanskrit word for circle. For Jung, it is a symbol of wholeness, completeness, and perfection; that is, it symbolizes the self.

ego

For Jung, everything of which we are conscious and entails performing the functions related to everyday life.

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