In scientific theorizing, the ability of an hypothesis to generate predictions about experiences we might observe. In Adler's theory, the ability of a goal to foster productive living and enhance one's life.
Three origins of a mistaken lifestyle: 1) physical or mental infirmity, 2) spoiling or pampering, 3) __________.
Adler's final theoretical position was that healthy adults seek: A) a perfect or superior society, B) masculinity, C) admiration from their peers, D) pleasure.
A person's earliest recollections. Such recollections provide the basis for a person's worldview, fictional final goal, and lifestyle. Adler believed that as one's personality changes so do first memories.
For Adler, unconscious meant that which is: A) not understood, B) anxiety-provoking, C) traumatic, D) repressed.
Freud or Adler? Considered that the goal of therapy was to discover repressed early memories.
Freud or Adler? Emphasized conscious mind.
Freud or Adler? Considered social motives primary.
Psychological condition that exists when a person concentrates too much on his or her own need to succeed while ignoring the needs of others. Such a person tends to be vain, domineering and arrogant.
Freud or Adler? Emphasized the unconscious mind.
avoiding type person
Person exhibiting the mistaken lifestyle of avoiding the attempt to solve life's problems, thereby escaping possible defeat. Such a person lacks adequate social interest.
lack social interest
What do both people with an inferiority complex and people with a superiority complex share?
Neurotic pattern in which the individual exaggerates his/her performance.
Form of neurotic aggression that involves wallowing in self-torture and guilt, the ultimate purpose of which is to hurt other people.
Freud or Adler? Considered that Humans are free to determine their own personality.
4 to 5
Age at which Adler said our "style of life" is formed.
According to Adler, each individual must solve three major tasks in life, all of which require a well-developed social interest. For example, one task involves choosing and pursuing a career that makes one feel worthwhile. That is, through constructive work the person helps to advance society. This description exemplifies which type of tasks?: A) Occupational tasks, B) Societal tasks, C) Love tasks, D) Hedonistic tasks, E) None of the above.
School of psychology developed by Adler.
An urge in human nature to adapt one's self to the conditions of one's environment and society.
difficult to falsify
Limitations of Alder's theory of personality: 1) _________, 2) overly simplistic (overlooks hereditary factors), 3) overly simplistic
Two fundamental human motives, according to Adler, were 1) _______ and 2) becoming superior.
Two fundamental human motives, according to Adler, were 1) overcoming inferiority and 2) _______.
_________ involves judging people with standards so high that no real person can live up to them: A) Distancing, B) Excuses, C) Idealization, D) Solicitude.
__________ was, according to Adler, an innate need that all humans have to live in harmony and friendship with other humans, and to aspire toward the development of a perfect society: A) Fictional finalism, B) Sex, C) Social interest, D) The creative self.
spacing between children
Three other factors that affect the influence of birth order on personality development: 1) __________, 2) gender, 3) your subjective view of your position.
What occurs when feelings of inferiority overwhelm to the extent that you lack social interest?
importance of social variables
Contributions of Adler's theory of personality: 1) _________, 2) widely influential (forerunner of humanist-existential movement), 3) prevention more important than cure.
Neurotic pattern in which the individual feels highly inadequate.
A style of life that belies one's actual capabilities and strengths.
Freud or Adler? Analyzed dreams to learn about lifestyles.
Freud or Adler? Considered future goals an important source of motivation.
The compensation for one's perceived inferiorities.
Adler's theory says that a neurotic personality regards their fictional final goal as ________.
According to Hans Vaihinger, this philosophy says that people experience the world through sensations provided by sensory stimulation; then people invent fictions to make sense of their subjective experiences.
According to Adler, a child from which birth order position has a pace-maker to help motivate their development?
The aspect of the person that interprets and makes meaningful the experience of the organism and establishes the lifestyle.
What happens when striving for superiority becomes exaggerated to the extent that you lose social interest?
Humans will typically develop beliefs and then act "as if" those beliefs are true; this describes Adler's concept of: A) fictional finalism, B) the creative self, C) existential imagination, D) social interest.
True/false: Adler's theory says that how we perceive things is more important that objective reality.
Adler's methods of research: 1) ________, 2) early memories, 3) dream analysis, 4) behavioral mannerisms.
masculine protest/aggression and power
Our natural response to subjective inferiority.
Fundamental fact of life
Adler replaced his earlier contention that people seek power to overcome feelings of inferiority with the contention that they aspire to become superior or perfect. Adler referred to the latter contention as the fundamental fact of life. Adler's final position was that healthy persons aspire toward social rather than individual perfection
According to Adler, which of the following is most instrumental in the formation of a lifestyle: A) a child's perception of the major events in his or her life, B) a child's experience of physical reality, C) the warm, loving care of a child by a parent, D) the harsh treatment of a child by a parent.
Mechanisms neurotics use to preserve what little self-esteem and illusions of superiority a mistaken lifestyle can provide.
Any lifestyle that is not aimed at socially useful goals. In other words, any lifestyle that minimizes social interest.
Development of Adler's theory progressed through these stages in which order? 1) subjective inferiority and masculine protest, 2) organ inferiority and compensation, 3) Superiority innate drive toward wholeness and perfect society
socially useful type person
Person exhibiting a lifestyle containing a healthy amount of social interest. Such a lifestyle is not "mistaken."
As a safeguarding strategy, aggression can take three forms: depreciation, accusation, and self-accusation.
Freud or Adler? Viewed the mind as consisting of warring factions.
Fictional future goal to which a person aspires. This goal is the end to which the person is aspiring, and his or her lifestyle is the means to that end. Also called a guiding self-ideal and guiding fiction.
________ is the tendency to overvalue one's own accomplishments and to undervalue the accomplishments of others: A) Accusation, B) Depreciation, C) Self-accusation, D) Distancing.
Freud or Adler? Was optimistic about human existence.
Adler, Horney, Erikson
Personality theorists who fit the Socio-cultural paradigm
Three major categories of tasks that require a well developed social interest: 1) occupational, 2) _________, 3) love and marriage.
One of the topics that Adler studied in order to understand personality. He believed that it created different situations to which children must adjust and that this adjustment may have an influence on personality development.
spoiling or pampering
Three origins of a mistaken lifestyle: 1) physical or mental infirmity, 2) __________, 3) neglect.
ruling-dominant type person
Person exhibiting the mistaken lifestyle that dominates and rules people. Such a person lacks adequate social interest.
Limitations of Alder's theory of personality: 1) difficult to falsify, 2) overly simplistic (overlooks hereditary factorsand overemphasizes early experience), 3) _________
Three other factors that affect the influence of birth order on personality development: 1) spacing between children, 2) __________, 3) your subjective view of your position.
Free element of the personality that allows the person to choose between alternative fictional goals and lifestyles. It is the differential exercise of this creative power that is mainly responsible for individual differences.
Adler's mistaken lifestyles: 1) ________, 2) getting leaning, 3) avoiding.
Adler believed that the primary purpose of dreams was to create emotions that could be used by dreamers to support their mistaken lifestyles. Dreams, then, were analysed to learn about the lifestyles of the dreamers.
According to Adler, ________ causes the Oedipus complex
Condition that exists when some organ of the body does not develop normally. Such a condition can stimulate compensation or overcompensation, which is healthy, or can result in an inferiority complex, which is unhealthy.
Feelings of being inadequate that arise out of childhood experiences.
One's position in within the family in terms of birth order among siblings, and the presence or absence of parents or other care-givers.
According to Vaihinger, fictions must be evaluated only in terms of their: A) validity, B) practical value, C) ability to make humans happy, D) correspondence to objective reality.
Safeguarding strategy used by neurotics that involves creating barriers between themselves and their problems in life. According to Adler it can take the forms of moving backward or the use of childlike behavior in order to gain attention and control: standing still or the avoidance of failure by not attempting to do anything; hesitating or becoming involved in diversions until it is too late to confront a problem; constructing obstacles or the creation of minor obstacles so that they can be overcome, thereby increasing the neurotic's false feeling of worth; experiencing anxiety is caused by the neurotic's inability to solve life's problems; the greater the ineptitude, the greater the anxiety and therefore, the greater the need for this strategy; and using the exclusion tendency or the neurotic's tendency to confine their lives to the few areas in which they can dominate.
overly simplistic (overlooks hereditary factors)
Limitations of Alder's theory of personality: 1) difficult to falsify, 2) _________, 3) overly optimistic
According to Adler, a child from which birth order position may develop a view that the world is a dangerous place if the parents are overly concerned with his/her health?
Freud or Adler? considered future goals unimportant
According to Adler, what is the natural source of motivation for people?
love and marriage
Three major categories of tasks that require a well developed social interest: 1) occupational, 2) societal, 3) _________.
Freud or Adler? Considered that the goal of therapy was to encourage a lifestyle that incorporates social interest.
Neurotic safeguarding strategy whereby one's accomplishments are over-valued and the accomplishments of others are undervalued. It can take the form of idealization, whereby standards used to judge people are so high that no real person could live up to them and is thus depreciated. Another form is solicitude, whereby neurotics act as if other people could not get along without them.
Attempting to become more powerful by being more masculine, and thereby less feminine. According to Adler's earlier theorizing, both men and women attempt to gain power by becoming more like the cultural ideal of the man.
Making up for or overcoming a weakness
This child is like a first-born child who was never dethroned. Only children, according to Adler, are often sweet, affectionate, and charming in order to appeal to others. Adler did not consider this birth position as dangerous as the first-born's position.
Safeguarding strategy whereby neurotics use their symptoms as excuses for their shortcomings.
What label did Adler give to the innate need to live in harmony and friendship with others?
Making up for a weakness, such as organ inferiority, by emphasizing functions that substitute for the weakness.
Striving for superiority
What Adler called "the fundamental fact of life." According to Adler's final theoretical position, it is not the search for the power necessary to overcome feelings of inferiority that motivates humans; rather, it is the constant search for perfection or superiority. However, Adler stressed the perfection of society rather than individual perfection.
Form of neurotic aggression that involves blaming other people for one's shortcomings and seeking revenge against those people.
fictional final goal
According to Adler, what you value most, how you would describe yourself in the future, what you are striving for.
Sulloway found that the most important variable determining whether a scientific innovation was accepted was the __________ of the scientist: A) intelligence, B) family size, C) socioeconomic status, D) birth order.
feelings of inferiority
Feelings that one has of being inferior, whether or not these feelings are justified by real circumstances. Such feelings, according to Adler, can lead either to positive accomplishments or to an inferiority complex.
Psychological condition that exists when a person is overwhelmed by feelings of inferiority to the point at which nothing can be accomplished.
Due mainly to the cultural conditions under which Adler wrote, he equated power and strength with: A) femininity, B) masculinity, C) an education, D) money.
The quality of emotional relationships among members of the family.
spoiling or pampering
Conditions that cause a child to believe it is the responsibility of others to satisfy his or her needs.
Freud or Adler? Was pessimistic about human existence.
For the Adlerian therapist, the goal of psychotherapy is to provide the client with : A) fictions around which to organize one's life, B) coping mechanisms, C) inner peace, D) a lifestyle that contains an adequate amount of social interest.
prevention more important than cure
Contributions of Adler's theory of personality: 1) importance of social variables, 2) widely influential (forerunner of humanist-existential movement), 3) _________.
According to Adler, which birth order position is the worst?
Adler's methods of research: 1) birth order, 2) early memories, 3) ________, 4) behavioral mannerisms.
getting-leaning type person
Person exhibiting the mistaken lifestyle that expects everything to be given to him or her by others. Such a person lacks adequate social interest.
Adler's mistaken lifestyles: 1) ruling-dominant, 2) getting leaning, 3) ________.
Because of its concern with the questions concerning the meaning of human existence, Adler's theory can be considered: A) deterministic, B) psychoanalytic, C) existential, D) none of the above.
Freud or Adler? Considered that personality was completely determined by heredity and environmental factors (mechanistic)
Freud or Adler? Considered that the mind was an integrated whole
One's unique way to strive for superiority, to attain the fictional final goals in life. Fixed by age 4-5.
Process by which, through considerable effort, a previous weakness is converted into a strength. An example is when a frail child works hard to become an athlete.
Shared, learned behavior and meanings that are acquired by people in a society that are passed on from one generation to another, for promoting adaptation. Represented externally by artifacts, roles, settings and institutions. Represented internally through beliefs, expectations, values and epistemology.
According to Adler, what kind of person has well developed social interest and deals with problems in a harmonious way with other people?
This child is the focus of attention until the birth of a sibling "dethrones" him or her. The loss felt by the first-born child when the second child is born often creates bitterness that causes problems later in life. Adler considered this to be the most troublesome birth position.
According to Adler, which birth order position is the best?
Striving to become more masculine - to posses more aggression and power.
physical or mental infirmity
Three origins of a mistaken lifestyle: 1) __________, 2) spoiling or pampering, 3) neglect.
Adler's mistaken lifestyles: 1) ruling-dominant, 2) ________, 3) avoiding.
your subjective view of your position
Three other factors that affect the influence of birth order on personality development: 1) spacing between children, 2) gender, 3) __________.
widely influential (forerunner of humanist-existential movement)
Contributions of Adler's theory of personality: 1) importance of social variables, 2) _________, 3) prevention more important than cure.
Adler's term for converting a weakness into a strength.
Adler's term to describe his theory. The term was used to stress his belief that each person is an integrated whole striving to attain future goals and attempting to find meaning in life while working harmoniously with others.
According to Adler, the second-worst birth position after the firstborn. This child is often spoiled and therefore loses courage to succeed by his or her own efforts.
tool/discardable/means to an end/flexible/adjustable
Adler's theory says that a healthy personality regards their fictional final goal as _______.
A principle that reflects the concept of goal orientation.
Adler's methods of research: 1) birth order, 2) ________, 3) dream analysis, 4) behavioral mannerisms.
The primary means by which one attempts to attain his or her self-created or fictional goals in life.
According to Adler, which of the following gives each individual personal freedom: A) lifestyle, B) masculine protest, C) creative self, D) social interest.
Condition that causes the child to feel worthless and angry and to be distrustful of everyone.
This child is very ambitious because he or she is constantly attempting to catch up and surpass the older sibling. Of all the birth orders, Adler believed that the second-born was the best.
The specific ways in which an individual seeks to obtain the goal of superiority.
Three major categories of tasks that require a well developed social interest: 1) _________, 2) societal, 3) love and marriage.
The concept of fictional finalism gave Adler's theory a(n) __________ component: A) teleological, B) deterministic, C) hedonistic, D) irrational
According to Adler, the masculine protest occurs in cultures where: A) weakness is associated with males, B) males and females are equally powerful, C) power is associated with females, D) power is associated with males.
Adler concludes from Vaihinger's Philoslophy of "As if" that our perception of events ________ our worldview.
Because of its concern with the positive relationships among humans, Adler's theory can be considered: A) psychoanalytic, B) humanistic, C) deterministic, D) existential.
Adler's methods of research: 1) birth order, 2) early memories, 3) dream analysis, 4) ________.
The ultimate fictional finalism, entailing the desire to be competent and effective in whatever one strives to do and to actualize one's potential.
Personality theorist who said that the person is an integrated whole, striving to achieve future goals that are compatible with society and allows individuals to live in compatibly with each other.
Healthy people are able to _______ fictional final goals when they are no longer useful.
According to Vaihinger, fictions must be evaluated only in terms of their: A) correspondence to objective reality, B) ability to make humans happy, C) practical value, D) validity.
Innate potential to live in harmony and friendship with others and to aspire to the development of a perfect society.
According to Adler, a child from which birth order position may be pampered?
Freud or Adler? Considered biological motives primary.
Actual physical weakness.
According to Adler, if a person with physical inferiorities becomes socially useful or not is mainly a matter of: A) early experience, B) choice, C) genetics, D) vocational counseling.
According to Adler, a child from which birth order position has been "dethroned"?
Freud or Adler? Analyzed dreams to detect contents of the unconscious mind.
An exceptional effort to make up for a weakness.
A compensatory mechanism that ward off feelings of insecurity.
Sulloway found that among scientists, __________ were much more likely to accept scientific innovations than __________: A) later-borns ... first-borns, B) those in the social sciences... those in the physical sciences, C) those in the physical sciences ... those in the social sciences, D) first-borns ... later-borns.