Ch. 31 Checkpoint Review

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Eastern Europe

By spring 1945, British and US leaders became deeply concerned over Soviet actions in:

black civil rights, national health insurance, higher minimum wage (NOT abolishing SSC)

During the 1948 presidential campaign, President Harry Truman endorsed:

True

T/f: Whittaker Chambers accused Alger Hiss of supplying secret documents to the Soviets

high rates of inflation

one of the major economic problems faced by President Truman immediately after WWII:

Joseph Stalin and his quest for world domination

the conventional or "orthodox" view of Cold War history holds whom or what most responsible for beginning the Cold War?

lasted into the presidency of Dwight D. Eisenhower, resulted in more than 2 million total casualties, increased fears of domestic Communist subversion

The Korean War:

True

T/f: the more formal name for the GI Bill of Rights was the Servicemen's Readjustment Act.

providing educational benefits, medical treatment, and housing loans for veterans

The GI Bill accomplished:

True

T/f: the US pledged to assist the British-supported government during the civil war that broke out in Greece after WWII

determined, decisive character

One of Harry S. Truman's great strengths as he assumed the presidency proved his:

moderate liberalism

President Truman viewed his 1948 presidential campaign as a mandate for:

each have veto power over major UN decisions

Permanent members of the United Nations Security Council:

State Department

In a speech delivered in West Virginia, McCarthy claimed to have a list of Communists in the:

Brooklyn Dodgers

Baseball integrated racially in 1947 when Jackie Robinson played for the:

artillery officer in WWI, put in office by Kansas City Democratic machine, failed as a businessman after WWI

All of the following statements proved true about Harry Truman:

racist nature of the Axis powers

One major reason that WWII inspired postwar changes in race relations was the:

National Security Council, CIA, and Air Force

The National Security Act of 1947 established all of the following:

allowed the president to impose a "cooling off" period during major strikes

the Taft-Hartley Act of 1947:

US, Canada, GB

All of the following were original NATO members:

because he felt it promoted thought control

President Truman vetoed the McCarthy Internal Security Act:

deadlocked negotiations, agree to disarm Germany, german reunification stalled

Potsdam Conference

proposed UN atomic weapons inspection and supervision; still preserve US atomic monopoly

Baruch Plan

Most influential containment policy, Kennan: USSR aggressively seeks to expand communism globally, Mr. X Article, CONTAIN USSR at every point where the Russians show signs of encroaching upon the interests of a peaceful and stable world

George F Kennan "Long Telegram"

Greece: first official application of containment policy, civil war between Communist insurgents and British occupational authorities, British can't afford aid any longer

Provisions: large scale US military aid and economic assistance.

Truman Doctrine

Included USSR, aid exchanged for economic information and eliminating trade barriers, forbid Czech, Hungary and Poland from participating

Marshall Plan

Marshall plan accelerated efforts to rebuild Western economies; US GB and France zones merged, USSR blockade, Airlift; Berlin as Cold War Symbol

Berlin Airlift

Collective security pact among Western European postwar allies and the US; first peacetime military alliance since the Revolutionary War; member nations backed each other up; Germany divided: Federal Republic of Germany, Democratic Republic of Germany. USSR responded with Warsaw Pact

NATO

USSR detonated its first atomic bomb, containment policy formalized as long-term US strategy for the cold war, National Security Council report,

Proposals: US hydrogen bomb

NSC-68

Civil war between Mao Zedong's Communist and Chiang Kai-shek's Nationalist forces; lesser of two evils: chiang. Chiang's group flees to Taiwan

China lobby: "Losing China" China wasn't recognized at UN

China Civil War

MacArthur disagreed with Truman, wanted to attack mainland china, wanted atomic bombs. "No substitute for victory."; Relieved for insubordination

Truman and MacArthur

Presidential commitment of US troops without approval established a precedent for the future, Expanded US involvement in Asia, Troops stationed in South Korea throughout the Cold War, Permanent state of mobilization

Korean Conflict Legacies

nationalism, socialism, religion. US policy FAILURE to draw a distinction among these.
Policy goals: stable capitalist market economies, national self-determination

Containment and the Third World

Zionism: Jewish return home, UN General Assembly decides to separate states within Palestine, British mandate ended = war. Truman recognized Israel

Containment in Palestine

rolled back National Labor Relations Act; outlawed "right-to-work" laws; prohibited union dues for political activity; 80 day cooling off period; TRUMAN VETOES but is overridden

Taft-Hartley Act

Republicans: Dewey, New Deal, Bipartisan
Democrats: Truman, Wallace (progressives) and Strom Thurmond (States' Rights Party aka Dixiecrats)

Election of 1948

Liberal Governing Approach: attention to civil rights, Keynes: fiscal policy, gov't spending to fuel national economic growth
Results: congressional hostility, raised minimum wage, extended SSC benefits 75%, National Housing Act

The Fair Deal

House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC) created to investigate fascist and communist influence in American labor unions and New Deal agencies, Hollywood Ten, Loyalty oaths required

Second Red Scare

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