Chapter 18/19 Blood/Heart Test

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Erythrocyte

Red blood cell that transports oxygen and carbon dioxide within the bloodstream.

Leukocyte

A white blood cell; typically functions in immunity, such as phagocytosis or antibody production.

Platelet

A cell fragment that plays an important part in forming blood clots.

Plasma

Colorless watery fluid of blood and lymph containing no cells and in which erythrocytes and leukocytes and platelets are suspended.

Hematocrit

The percentage of erythrocytes to total blood volume.

Hemoglobin

Iron-containing protein in red blood cells that transports oxygen from the lungs to the tissues of the body.

Hematopoiesis

Formation and development of red and white blood cells from stem cells. Occur in bone marrow.

Hemocytoblast

Stem cell that gives rise to all blood cells, resides in the red bone marrow.

EPO

Glycoprotein hormone produced by kidney. Stimulates development/ production of RBCs.

Anemia

Blood having abnormally low oxygen carrying capacity, due to a reduced number or size of the red blood cells.

Polycythemia

A disorder characterized by an abnormal increase in the number of red blood cells in the blood.

Intrinsic Factor

A substance produced by the mucosa of the stomach and intestines that is essential for the absorption of vitamin B12.

Granulocytes

A group of leukocytes containing granules in their cytoplasm; neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils.

Agranulocytes

A group of leukocytes without granules in their nuclei; lymphocytes, monocytes.

Neutrophils

The most abundant type of white blood cell. They are phagocytic and tend to self-destruct as they destroy foreign invaders, limiting their life span to a few days.

Eosinophils

White blood cell that are responsible for combating infection by parasites in vertebrates.

Basophils

A type of WBC that promotes inflammation and participates in allergic responses.

Lymphocytes

The two types of white blood cells that are part of the body's immune system.

Monocytes

An agranular leukocyte that is able to migrate into tissues and transform into a macrophage.

Leukemia

Cancer characterized by an increase in abnormal white blood cells.

Hemostasis

Stoppage of blood flow.

Thrombus

A blood clot formed within a blood vessel and remaining attached to its place of origin.

Embolus

A clot that breaks lose and travels through the bloodstream.

Thromboembolytic disorders

Undesirable clot formation.

Agglutinogens

Antigens formed on the surface of red blood cells, whose presence and structure are genetically determined.

Agglutinins

Specific antibodies formed in the blood.

Atrium

Upper chamber of the heart that receives and holds blood that is about to enter the ventricle.

Ventricle

A chamber of the heart that receives blood from an atrium and pumps it to the arteries.

Aorta

The largest artery in the body; the large trunk artery that carries blood from the left ventricle of the heart to branch arteries.

Vena Cava

Largest vein in the body; either of two large veins that return oxygen-depleted blood to the right atrium of the heart.

Pulmonary Artery

One of two arteries (branches of the pulmonary trunk) that carry venous blood from the heart to the lungs.

Pulmonary Vein

Any of four veins that carry arterial blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.

Hypertension

Abnormally high blood pressure.

HbF

Fetal Hemoglobin.

Erythropoeisis

Process of making new red blood cells.

Aplastic anemia

Severe form of anemia that develops as a consquences of loss of functioning red bone marrow.

Pernicious anemia

Progressive anemia that results from a lack of intrinsic factor essential for the absorption of vitamin B12.

Sickle-Cell anemia

Low O2 from irregular shaped RBC , joint pain, thrombosis, anemia fever.

Arteries

Blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart.

Veins

Blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart.

Blood Alkalinity

pH between 7.35 to 7.45.

Erythroblastosis fetalis

Disorder that results from the incompatibility of a fetus with an Rh-positive blood factor and a mother who is Rh negative, causing red blood cell destruction in the fetus; this condition necessitates a blood transfusion to save the fetus.

Capillaries

The smallest blood vessels which connect the smallest arteries with the smallest veins.

120/80

Normal blood pressure for a healthy adult.

SA node

A specialized bit of heart tissue that controls the heartbeat.

AV node

Picks up electrical impulse from the SA node and causes ventricles to contract, causing blood to move into arteries

Bundle of His

A bundle of modified heart muscle that transmits the cardiac impulse from the atrioventricular node to the ventricles causing them to contract.

Chordae tendineae

"Heart strings" are tiny white collagenic cords that anchor the cusps to the ventricular walls. They originate from the papillary muscles.

Diastolic

The blood pressure during that part of the heartbeat when the hearts venticles are relaxing.

Systolic

The blood pressure during that part of the heartbeat when the heart's ventricles are contracted and the blood is being pushed out into the arteries.

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