Archduke Francis Ferdinand
heir to the throne of Austria Hungary; assassinated by Gavrilo Princip, a bosnian serb.; sparked WWI
Versailles Peace Treaty
controversial treaty that required germany to pay reparations and disarm, ended World War 1
The Balfour Declaration
a statement of British support from Arthur Balfour for a jewish homeland in Palestine
an economic system in which the central government directs all major economic decisions
A movement founded in the 1890s to promote the establishment of a Jewish homeland in Palestine.
a political system headed by a dictator that calls for extreme nationalism and racism and no tolerance of opposition
part of government that made economic decisions for Russia when it was a communist
The Third Republic of Germany which began Hitler's rule in 1933 and ended with his defeat in 1945
The Oxford Oath was an oath by students of the Oxford Union on February 9, 1933 vowing never to "bear arms for king and country" in the United Kingdom.[
another euphemism; term for the plan to kill all of the jews
The theory created by Karl Marx and Frederich Engels that centers on communism and its inevitability.
a political barrier that isolated the peoples of Eatern Europe after WWII, restricting their ability to travel outside the region
Ich bin ein Berliner
I am a Berliner
a Russian prison camp for political prisoners
a Russian artificial satellite
a United States program of economic aid for the reconstruction of Europe (1948-1952)
invented by Gutenburg. made producing books cheaper and faster
new invention for weaving-enabled the weaver to throw the shuttle back and forth between the threads with one hand (replaced the loom) Invented by John Jay
In 1779, Samuel Crompton combined the spinning jenny and the water frame to create a machine which produced a thread which was stronger, finer and more consistent
external-combustion engine in which heat is used to raise steam which either turns a turbine or forces a piston to move up and down in a cylinder
Scottish engineer and inventor whose improvements in the steam engine led to its wide use in industry (1736-1819)
Inventor of the Bessemer Process, which converted iron ore into steel.
American inventor best known for inventing the electric light bulb, acoustic recording on wax cylinders, and motion pictures. (p. 703)
American inventor who designed the first commercially successful steamboat and the first steam warship (1765-1815)
chinese philosphere and teacher; his belifs,known as confusoinism greatly influenced chinese life
This person was a pioneer in the field of selective animal breeding. He bred animals for certain characteristics.
a walled section of Beijing that encloses the palace that was formerly the residence of the emperor of China
a member of the branch of Islam that accepts the first four caliphs as rightful successors to Muhammad
people who only want Muhammad's descendants as ruler
Muslim name for the one and only God
Portuguese prince who started a school for sailors and sponsored early voyages of exploration
Mandate of Heaven
a political theory of ancient China in which those in power were given the right to rule from a divine source
South African statesman who was released from prison to become the nation's first democratically elected Black president in 1994 (born in 1918)
Polish trade union created in 1980 to protest working conditions and political repression.
Soviet statesman whose foreign policy brought an end to the Cold War and whose domestic policy introduced major reforms (born in 1931)
Mutualy Assured Destruction
Secret police set up by Lenin-arrested "enemies of the revolution".
a social class comprising those who do manual labor or work for wages
A large farm in which peasants were simply employed and paid a straight salary
Rich peasants in the Russian Empire who owned larger farms and used hired labour. They were their own class.