(New Testament) the rising of the body of Jesus into heaven on the 40th day after his Resurrection
Signs/Symbols of the Pentecost
fire, wind, tongues, languages, Holy Spirit
Council of Jerusalem
first Council called around 50 AD, determined that Gentiles could convert to Christianity without first becoming Jewish, Gentile and Jewish conflict. Jewish Law = 1st 5 books/circumcision
Pattern of Paul's Preaching
If one member suffers, all suffer with them. If one member is honored, all rejoice with him. Equality
In the Roman Catholic Faith, a member of the clerical order (clergy) just below a priest.
Reasons for persecutions
Break with Judaism, Growth of CHristianity aftr the council of Jerusalem. Refusal of praising Roman Gods, Secretive, Converted Followers
Sacrament of Reconciliation
members of the church are forgiven and reconciled with God and with the Church.
One Who denies the faith, a disloyal person who betrays or deserts his cause or religion or political party or friend etc.
Emperor of Rome who adopted the Christian faith and stopped the persecution of Christians (280-337), Pagan,
The Edict of Milan
AD 313 Legalized Christianity but did not make it the state religion, gave back the property to all those persecuted and declared no more state religion, Constantine
Council of Nicea
stated that Jesus is fully human because he represents humanity to God and divine because God gave him power to save us. where the creed was written. (325)
Jesus not Divine but created by God, Of God, Jesus was superhuman, Rejected the Council of Nicea as heresy because they don't believe in the Trinity that Jesus is divine, Claimed Jesus may have sinned, Jesus and God are Coequal
All material creation is evil, earth life is irrelevant, No God of the Old Testament, Jesus is not truly human, salvation is for a select few Jesus was the mind of God trapped in a human body.
The Council of Chalcedon Result
Declared Christ's two natures unmixed, unchanged, undivided, insperarable. Condemned monophysitism. (p 70)
Purpose of Monasticism
Quest for Holyness, They become Authentic Christians in Monastaries. Seek Oneness With God, practiced self sacrifice
Christian men who sacrificed their lives to Christ by living alone in the desert, First = St. Anthony of Egypt (practiced Self Sacrifice)
Council of Chalcedon
Decvlared that Christ is one person who posesses 2 natures human and divine. Opposed monophysitism. (p 70)
Augustine's Replies to the Donatists or the Pelagians
He rejects indulgences, 5 sacraments, and purgatory.
Acted as ruler of all people of Western Europe, strong military force, leader of the Franks, Protect the church and make sure it's enforcedthroughout the Empire.
Impact of Islam
A monotheist religion based on submission to God's will, believing to have been revealed to Muhammad in the early 17th century. Muhammad was the founder of the Islamic religion.
a political and social system that developed during the Middle Ages; designed to make a productive use of land and protection for those who work it.
the collective body of Christians throughout the world and history (like a religious state)
the appointment of religious officials by kings or nobles
The western Church Changed a Line in The Nicene Creed, "the holy Spirit proceeds from the Father => ... proceeds from the father and son". Eastern Church very angry.
a religious person who relies on begging and charity to survive
a religion based on mystical communion with an ultimate reality
One who dies for their faith
Goal of Persecutions
Results of Persecution
Glorification of Martyrs, Closer Christian Community,
in the middle ages, a noble who usually was given land by his lord in exchange for loyalty/service
Wanted community to be dependant on God's providence (poverty and simplicity)
st. francis of assissi's friend who founded a sister order for women
Bubonic Plague, Jews were often blamed, Search for medieval cures/scapegoats
Church of the Bishop of A diocese
wrote Summa Theologica, Five arguments of existence
Catharine of Siena
Struggled with doubts then found union with Christ, Worked with sick/gave advice to sick, "Doctor of the Church", convinced Pope gregory XI to return to papacy
Great Western Schism (Avignon Papacy)
1305 cardinals change Bertrand Degot as Pope he was crowned at Lyon but he became ill so he stayed in Avignon not Rome
Martin Luther and His Ideas
Wrote Doctrine of Justification by faith through grace and the 95 theses. Disagreed with the practice of indulgences/daily Confession/purgatory. Only 2 true sacraments: Eucharist and Baptism
Paid pardons from punishment for sin
Doctrine of Justification By Faith Through Grace
God takes sinful humans and makes them righteous in his eyes.
a Christian heresy of the 5th and 6th centuries that challenged the orthodox definition of the two natures (human and divine) in Jesus and instead believed there was a single divine nature
John Calvin and Predestination
believed that God is a judge and elects some to heaven and some to hell, INSTITUTES OF THE CHRISTIAN RELIGION: emphasized predestination and he rejected the medieval Church. he believed that the church and state should be united under the Calvinist faith
Excesses of Renaissance Popes
Pope's taxed the people of the church and exploited (took advantage of) church goers. The popes used up the money foolishly and selfishly and the Church became a business rather than a place of spirituality.
Council of Trent
Post reformation meeting of the worl's catholic bishops to reform the church and clarify catholic teaching, (renewed spiritual life and manifest through nw religious orders)
the selling of official positions in the medieval roman catholic church
Modern Missionary Period
Church went global in the 1500s. Missionaries were sent to America and there was expedition to a new land.
The1st Catholic Bishop in the US, wanted to maintain Catholic support and supported the idea of separation between Church and State
Parishes dominated by a certain culture or ethnicity. Enculturation is explaining the truths of one culture in a way another culture can understand
Our Lady of Guadalupe
The story of Juan Diego, and Mother Mary appearing before him 3 times was of special significance and our lady guadalupe has been the object of devotion ever since. She has gained universal recognition and stands as a potent symbol of the Church, celebrating diversity, empowering the poor, and speaking with the voice of compassion.
Arrival of British Catholics in America
The first british catholics who arrived in American in 1634 founded the state of Maryland
Pope Pius IX
The Church and all europeans felt stability was much needed. In 1846 the cardinals chose a Pope with a more open viewpoint. he was the longest reigning Pope in History. The pope offered amnesty to all politival prisoners in papal states, instituted a representative form of government and did away with censorship of ideas. A revolution forced him to flee to Naples in 1848
Pope Pius IX and his condemnation of "isms"
Pope addressed issues of the modern church: scientific advancement and nationalism
Syllubus of Errors
issued by Pope Pius IX, it was aa list of 80 errors that he regarded as being incompatible with Catholicism.
Catholic Social Teaching
it was a groundbreaking document. Pope Leo addressed the issue of worker's rights from a strictly moral standpoint. He announced the church would engage in issues related to the problems and the freedoms associated with the modern world. Rerum novarum added to the legitimacy of the union movement. The document began what became an ongoing examination of issues of justice by Church leaders and members of the Church "The church's social teaching frorproses principles for reflection; it provides criteria for judgement; it gives guidelines for action"
Papal Infallibility and the Use of Ex Cathedra
When the roman pontiff speaks ex xathedra it is when the exercise of his office as shepherd of all Christians, in virtue of his supreme apostolic teaching, he defines a doctrine concerning faith or morals to be held by the whole church
Liturgical Reform (Vatican II)
Vernacular language, the priest faced everyone, they could recieve communion themselves.
Pope John XXIII & The History of Vatican II
In the early 1960s the Catholic Church decided to take stock of herself and her place in the world. It was a 3 year event. John XXIII- a kind unassuming Italian was elected as the new pope.
Goals of Vatican II
1) the church must impart herself and to the world a new awareness of her inner nature.
2) there must be a renewal and reform of the Church
3) the church should work to bring about christian Unity
4) the church should be in dialogue with today's world
Presiders of Vatican II
John XXIII and Paul VI
Gaudium et Spes
aka Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World. Portrays the church as being in service to the World; presents in particular the church's positions concerning family, culture, economics, politics, and peace.
Dogmatic Constitution on the Church. Promotes an understanding of the Church that highlights mystery, ecumensim, shared authority, the laity, and the need for reform and renewal. Increased participation of the lay people, increased respect for those not of the Catholic Faith, and increased sensitivity to those that have not heard Gospel but who seek God in their own way.
Nostra Aetate/Inter-Religious Dialogue
aka Declaration on the Relation of the Church to Non-Christian Religions. Called for openness toward and cooperation with the major religions of the world. Respect/dialogue replace fear of hostility toward other religions. Increased awareness of the relationship with Jewish people and their lack of responsibility for the death of Jesus.
Declaration on Religious Freedom
All people should be free to worship according to their own conscience. Church teaching advocates freedom of religion. Human dignity, freedom, and primacy of conscience become more visibly associated with Catholicism.
1891 - Pope Leo XII's call to the Catholic Church to work to alleviate social problems such as poverty.