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Present Indicative Form of Fero, Ferre

fero ferimus
fers. fertis
fert. ferunt

Imperfect Indicative Form of Fero, Ferre

ferebam. ferebamus
ferebas. ferebatis
ferebat. ferebant

Future Indicative Form of Fero, Ferre

feram. feremus
feres. feretis
feret. ferent

Perfect Tenses of Fero are formed ___________


Present Subjunctive Form of Fero, Ferre

feram feramus
feras. feratis
ferat. ferant

Imperfect Subjunctive Form of Fero, Ferre

ferrem. ferremus
ferres. ferretis
ferret. ferrent

Present Indicative of Volo, Velle

volo. volumus
vis. vultis
vult. volunt

Imperfect Indicative of Volo, Velle

volebam. volebamus
volebas. volebatis
volebat. volebant

Future Indicative of Volo, Velle

volam. volēmus
volēs. volētis
volēt. volent

Present Subjunctive of Volo, Velle

velim. velimus
velis. velitis
velit. velint

Imperfect Subjunctive of Volo, Velle

vellem. vellemus
velles. velletis
vellet. vellent

Present Indicative of Malo, Malle

malo. malumus
mavis. mavultis
mavult. malunt

Imperfect Indicative of Malo, Malle

malēbam. malēbamus
malēbas. malēbatis
malēbat. malēbant

Future Indicative of Malo, Malle

malam. malemus.
males maletis
malet. malent

Present Subjunctive of Malo, Malle

malim. malimus
malis. malitis
malit. malint

Imperfect Subjunctive of Malo, Malle

mallem. mallemus
malles. malletis
mallet. mallent

Present Indicative of Nolo, Nolle

nolo. nolumus
non vis. non vultis
non vult. nolunt

Imperfect Indicative of Nolo, Nolle

nolebam. nolebamus
nolebas. nolebatis
nolebat. nolebant

Future Indicative of Nolo, Nolle

nolam. nolemus
noles. noletis
nolet. nolent

Present Subjunctive of Nolo, Nelle

nolim. nolimus
nolis. nolitis
nolit. nolint

Imperfect Subjunctive of Nolo, Nolle

nollem. nollemus
nolles. nolletis
nollet. nollent

Present Indicative of Eo

eo. imus
is. itis
it. eunt

Imperfect Indicative of Eo

ibam. ibamus
ibas. ibatis
ibat. ibant

Future Indicative of Eo

ibo. ibimus
ibis. ibitis
ibit. ibunt

Present Subjunctive of Eo

eam. eamus
eas. eatis
eat. eant

Imperfect Subjunctive of Eo

irem. iremus
ires. iretis
iret. irent

Formation of Present Active Infinitive

Second Principle Part of Verb

Formation of Present Passive Infinitive

formed by dropping the -e from the Present Active Infinitive and adding -i ( except for 3rd conjugation, cut off -ere and add -i)

Formation of Perfect Active Infinitive

formed by taking the Perfect Stem and adding -isse

Formation of Perfect Passive Infinitive

formed by taking the Perfect Passive Participle and adding -esse

Formation of Future Active Infinitive

formed by cutting the us, a, um off of the Perfect Passive Particple and adding -ur and us, a, um

Formation of Future Passive Infinitive

formed by taking the accusative of the supine (-um ending) and adding -iri

What is a participle?

Verbal Adjective

Steps of Forming Present Active Participle

Go to 1st principle part, cut off o, add ans ,antis or ens, entis depending on the conjugation

Steps of Forming Perfect Passive Participle

Go to 4th principle part of the verb

Steps of Forming Future Active Participle

Go to 4th principle part, cut off the us, a, um, add urus,a, um

Steps of Forming Future Passive Participle

Go to 1st principle part, cut off o, add, andus, a, um or endus, a, um depending on the conjugation

Dative of Possession

shows possession, the thing possessed goes in nominative; the possessor is dative

Active Periphrastic

-Expresses intended action
-uses future active participle and a form of the verb to be (sum, esse)
-translated as going to, about to , intend to

Passive Periphrastic

-Shows obligation and/or necessity
- uses future passive participle and a form of the verb to be (sum, esse)
- translated as ought to verb, must verb, had to verb


Verb formed passively but translated actively.

What is an indirect statement?

A statement which is not quoted directly but is quoted indirectly is called the indirect statement.

Parts of Indirect Statement

A verb of the head (saying, thinking, feeling, knowing) introduces the noun clause. The indirect statement itself is expressed through a subject accusative and an infinitive.

Formation of Indirect Statement

1. Cross out that
2. Make the subject of the "that" clause accusative
3. Make the verb infinitive
*Follow Sequence of Tenses

Ablative Absolute

-A construction that is free from/unbound from the rest of the sentence
-denotes time or circumstance of an action
- grammatically independent from the sentence
- formed with a noun and noun, noun and participle, noun and adjective
- everything goes in the ablative
-noun and a noun is translated as the noun being the noun
-noun and adjective is translated as the noun being the adjective
-noun and a participle, participle translated regularly

What is a gerund?

Verbal Noun

Formation of Gerund

drop o from 1st part of verb, add and or end and then add 2nd declension neuter endings (i, o, um, o)

What form of the gerund doesn't exist?

Nominative form of the gerund does not exist. For nominative, use present active infinitive.

What gender is a gerund?

The gerund is always impersonal so use the neuter 2nd declension endings when declining.

Subjunctive Mood is the mood of _________

possibility, probability, or potentiality. It deals with the world inside the mind.

Present Subjunctive

Go to 1st principle part of the verb, add e if the verb is 1st conjugation or add a if the verb is any other conjugation, then add personal/passive endings

Imperfect Subjunctive

Present active infinitive and the personal/ passive endings

Perfect Active Subjunctive

Perfect stem and eri and the personal endings

Perfect Passive Tense

Perfect Passive Participle and the present subjunctive form of the verb to be ( sim, sis, sit, simus, sitis, sint)

Pluperfect Active Subjunctive

Perfect stem and isse and the personal endings

Pluperfect Passive Tense

Perfect Passive Participle and the imperfect subjunctive form of the verb to be (essem, esses, esset, essemus,essetis, essent)

Independent Use of the Subjunctive

An independent use of the subjunctive is when the subjunctive form of the verb is used as the main verb in the sentence


Present subjunctive, 1st person, singular/plural, almost always plural, expresses an exhortation or urging, translated as let's, let me


Present Subjunctive, 2nd/ 3rd persons, singular/plural, expresses a weak command ( weaker command than the imperative), translated as subjects(s) should verb, let subject(s) verb


Present/ Imperfect/ Pluperfect
Present Optative: Any Person/ Number, expresses a wish possible of fulfillment, translated as May subject(s) verb or I wish that the subject verbs
Imperfect Optative: Any Person/ Number, expresses a wish impossible of fulfillment, frequently introduced by utinam, translated as would that the subject verbed or if only the subject verbed


Present/Perfect tense, any person/number, expresses a possible or conceivable action ( that is not desired as in hortatory, optative,jussive or real as in indicative)
Present Potential is translated as may, might, could
Perfect Potential is translated as may have, might have, could have

How many ways are there to form purpose clauses?

There are six ways to show purpose in Latin.

Name the ways to form purpose

1. ut/ne + present/imperfect subjunctive
If the main verb is present, future, or future perfect, use present subjunctive. If the main verb is imperfect, perfect, or pluperfect, use imperfect subjunctive.
2. causā + the genitive of the gerund/gerundive
3. ad + the accusative of the gerund/gerundive
4. If the main verb shows motion, use the supine (perfect passive participle with -um ending)
Relative Clauses of Purpose
5. If the object of the first clause is the subject of the subordinate clause, the clause is introduced by a nominative relative pronoun (instead of ut/ne.)
6. If the purpose clause contains a comparative idea, it is introduced by quo (ablative degree of difference.

Translation of Positive Purpose Clauses

to verb
so that the subject verb
in order to verb
in order that the subject verb
for the purpose of verbing
for the sake of verbing

Translation of Negative Purpose Clauses

to not verb
so that the subject not verb
in order to not verb
in order that the subject not verb
for the purpose of not verbing
for the sake of not verbing

Indirect Command

Indirect Command is formed with a noun clause and the subjunctive form of a verb such as persuading, urging, asking, commanding
A noun clause of purpose follows the same sequence of tenses as a regular purpose clause.
Ut/Ne +the present/imperfect subjunctive

Accusative+ ut/ne +subjunctive

hortor, hortari, hortatus sum- to encourage, urge (N.B. hortor, hortari is deponent)
oro, orare , oravi, oratus, a, um- to beg, ask
moneo, monēre, monui, monitus, a, um- to warn, advise
obsecro, obsecrare, obsecravi, obsecratus, a, um- to implore
rogo, rogare, rogavi, rogatus, a, um- to ask, beg

Dative+ ut/ne+ subjunctive

impero, imperare, imperavi, imperatus, a, um- to order, command
mando, mandare, mandavi, mandatus, a, um- to order, command, instruct
persuadeo, persuadēre, persuasi, persuasus, a, um- to persuade

A(B) + Ablative+ ut/ne+ subjunctive

peto, petere, petivi, petitus, a, um- to seek, ask
postulo, postulare, postulavi, postulatus, a, um- to demand
quaero, quaerere, quaesivi, quaesitus, a, um- to demand, ask, seek

Indirect Question

Indirect Questions are questions which are reported, not directly asked
i.e. Direct Question- Why did she leave?; Indirect Question- I know why she left.

Formation of Indirect Question

verb of the head + question word + subjunctive
Follow sequence of tenses

Result Clause

When the subordinate clause is the RESULT of the main clause

Formation of Result Clause

-If the sentence is Positive, use ut + subjunctive (subordinate clause)
-If the sentence is Negative, use ut...non + subjunctive (subordinate clause)

Clue Words for Result Clauses

tantus, a, um: so much, so great, so large
talis, tale: such, of such a sort
*tot: so many (indeclinable adj)
tam: so, to such an extent
totiens: so often, so many times
ita: in such a way, thus
sic: in such a way, thus

Noun Clause of Result

A verb meaning to happen, to result, to bring about may take a Noun Clause of Result
introduced by ut or ut..non + subjunctive.
accido, accidere, accidi:happen, come to pass
evenio, evenire, eveni, eventus, a, um:come about, happen

Verbs of Fearing

timeo, timēre, timui: to fear, be afraid
vereor, vereri, veritus sum: to fear, dread
metuo, metuere, metui, metutus, a, um: to fear, dread

Verbs of Fearing Rule

-If the sentence is Positive:
ne + subjunctive
-If the sentence is Negative:
ut + subjunctive

Name Ways to Form Obligation

1. debeo + present active infinitive
2. oportet/ necesse est + ut/ut..non + the present subjunctive
3. oportet/ necesse est + subject accusative + infinitive
4. Passive Periphrastic
-Future Passive Participle + the verb to be
-The verb MUST be passive
-The doer/agent must be in the dative case (dative of agent

Dum + Present Indicative

ongoing action

Cum Temporal

Cum + indicative
defines the time at which something happens
Cum= when

Cum Circumstantial

Cum + subjunctive
defines circumstances under which an action took place
Cum= when

Cum Causal

Cum + subjunctive
defines cause of an action
Cum= since

Cum Concessive

Cum + subjunctive
defines something in spite of which an action takes place
Cum= although

Dum Clause

ongoing action

Locative Case Rule

NEVER use a preposition with names of cities, towns, small islands, domus, humus, and rus.

Simple Present

Present Indicative
If subject verbs, subject verbs.

Simple Past

Imperfect/Perfect Indicative
If subject verbed, subject verbs.

Future More Vivid

Future Indicative
If subject verbs, subject will verb.

Future Less Vivid

Present Subjunctive
If subject should verb, subject would verb.

Contrary to Fact Present

Imperfect/Perfect Subjunctive
If subject verbed, subject would verb.

Contrary to Fact Past

Pluperfect Subjunctive
If subject had verbed, subject would have verbed.

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