A&P Ch 8

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Ch 8

The two principal divisions that make up the nervous system are the:*

peripheral and central

The two types of cells found in the nervous system are:

neurons and glia cells

The part of the neuron that carries impulses to the neuron cell body is the:*

dendrite

The types of neurons that carry impulses away from the brain and spinal cord are called:*

efferent neurons also known as motor neurons

The types of neurons that carry impulses to the brain and spinal cord are called:

sensory neurons also known as afferent neurons

The part of the neuron that carries impulses away from the neuron cell body is the:*

axon

Interneurons connect:

efferent neurons to motor neurons, afferent neurons to sensory neurons, central neurons to afferent neurons

Cells that produce myelin for the cells of the brain and spinal cord are the:*

oligodendrocytes

Cells that are important in the blood-brain barrier are the:*

astrocytes

Cells that produce myelin for cells outside the brain and spinal cord are the:*

Schwann cells

Glia cells that act as microbe-eating cells are the:*

microglia

The tough fibrous sheath covering the whole nerve is called the:

epineurium

Reflexes can be:

two neurons and three neurons

A synapse is:

a gap between neurons that separates the axon end of one neuron from the dendrite of the next and is crossed by a chemical

The difference between a three- and a two-neuron reflex is that a three-neuron reflex

includes an interneuron

The resting neuron:*

has a slight positive charge on the exterior

When a section of the resting neuron is stimulated:*

sodium ions rush into the cell and the interior of the cell becomes slightly positive

When the nerve impulse encounters a myelin-covered section of neuron:*

it jumps over the myelin

A synapse includes:

a very narrow synaptic cleft

Neurotransmitters:

can diffuse back into the synaptic knob

The brainstem includes the:

pons, midbrain, and medulla oblongata

The "vital centers" (the cardiac, respiratory, and vasomotor centers) are located in the:

medulla oblongata

The association of sensation with emotion occurs in the:

thalamus

The regulation of the sleep cycle, water balance, and the production of ADH occurs in the:

hypothalamus

The coordination of muscle movement and the maintenance of equilibrium occur in the:

cerebellum

Which of the following neurotransmitter is a catecholamine?

dopamine

The right and left sides of the cerebrum are connected by the

corpus callosum

A CVA occurring in the occipital lobe of the cerebrum would affect:

vision

The ridges in the cerebrum are called:

gyri

The functions of the spinal cord include

the primary reflex center

The tough outer layer of meninges is called the:*

dura mater

The autonomic nervous system consists of neurons that conduct impulses from the central nervous system to:*

cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and glandular tissue

Which axon releases norepinephrine?

a sympathetic post-ganglionic axon

The parasympathetic nervous system:

releases acetylcholine from its postganglionic axons

The sympathetic nervous system:

is called the thoracolumbar system

The axon of an afferent neuron could synapse with:

an interneuron

An axon of an efferent neuron could synapse with:

a muscle cell

An efferent neuron carries impulses in the direction opposite that of:

a sensory neuron aka an afferent neuron

Going from the interior to the exterior of a nerve, the layers of connective tissue would be:

endoneurium, perineurium, epineurium

Which of the following is a morphine-like neurotransmitter that acts as a natural pain killer?*

endorphin

Which structure is part of the diencephalon?

hypothalamus

Which of the following is a function of the thalamus?

associates sensation with emotion

The lobe of the brain that deals with vision is the:*

occipital lobe

The lobe of the brain that contains the auditory area is the:*

temporal lobe

The somatic nervous system controls actions of:

skeletal muscles

A group of nerve cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system is called a:

ganglion

Which nervous system makes up part of the autonomic nervous system?

both parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems

Postganglionic neurons release acetylcholine as part of which nervous system?

parasympathetic nervous system

Which is also called the thoracolumbar nervous system?

sympathetic nervous system

In which nervous system does the synapse between the preganglionic and postganglionic neurons usually occur some distance away from the spinal cord?

parasympathetic nervous system

As part of which nervous system do preganglionic neurons synapse with postganglionic neurons going to many different efferent organs?

sympathetic nervous system

As part of which nervous system do preganglionic neurons release acetylcholine?

both parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems

Which nervous system dominates the control of effector organs under normal, everyday conditions?

parasympathetic nervous system

In which nervous system does the synapse of the preganglionic and postganglionic neurons usually occur close to the spinal cord?

sympathetic nervous system

As part of which nervous system do postganglionic neurons release norepinephrine?

sympathetic nervous system

Which nervous system is also called the craniosacral nervous system?

parasympathetic nervous system

The nervous system and this are the two body-wide communication systems.*

endocrine

Which of the following is not considered part of the nervous system as a whole?

the brain, the spinal cord, the sensory organs such as the eyes

These types of neurons are sometimes called connecting neurons:

interneurons

Indentations between adjacent Schwann cells are called:

the nodes of Ranvier

The word glia comes from the Greek word meaning:

glue

A glioma is:

a type of tumor

Myelinated bundles of axons in the central nervous system are called:

tracts and white matter

A nerve is:

a group of axons

A nerve impulse is also called a(n):

action potential

This neurotransmitter is not a catecholamine*

acetylcholine

Some of the neurons in this structure function as endocrine glands:*

hypothalamus

In the cerebrum, the islands of gray matter within the white matter are called the*

cerebral cortex and the basal ganglia

The innermost membrane covering the brain and spinal cord is called the:*

pia mater

The middle membrane covering the brain and spinal cord is called the:*

arachnoid mater

The total number of pairs of both spinal and cranial nerves is:*

43

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