the period before events were recorded in writing
The first American indians. They were nomads and campers.
Ability to domesticate plants and animals.
Northernmost mesoamerican city; near Mexico City.
Ancient civilization; superb mathmeticians and astronomers.
Ancient civilization; called themselves the "Mexica".
Organized society in Mexico and Central America. Had writing and cities.
Lake where Tenochtitlan was located.
Aztec capital; 200,000 people; big market and well defended.
Aztec tribal patron with God; central figure of cult of human sacrifice and warfare; idenified told sun god
Eighth Aztec emperor. According to legend, sacrificed 80,000 people in order to build a temple.
Aztec emperor defeated and killed by the Spanish conquistador Hernando Cortes.
Italian navigator who discovered the New World in the service of Spain while looking for a route to China (1451-1506)
The first tribe that Columbus encountered
Levantines and Italians
Middle Men in Europe
Henry the Navigator
(1394-1460) Portuguese prince who promoted the study of navigation and directed voyages of exploration down the western coast of Africa. (p. 425)
Portuguese explorer who in 1488 was the first European to get round the Cape of Good Hope (thus establishing a sea route from the Atlantic to Asia) (1450-1500)
Vasco de Gama
A Portugese sailor who was the first European to sail around southern Africa to the Indian Ocean
Claimed Brazil for Portugal n 1500. He had intended to follow Da Gama but was blown off course.
Nina, Pinta, and Santa Maria
The ships that Columbus sailed in.
Queen of spain who gave Columbus the ships and sailors to sail to the new world
Discovered the Pacific Ocean
Found an all-water route to the Pacific Ocean
Line that divided the worlds lands between Spain and Portugal
Treaty of Tordesillas
a 1494 agreement between Portugal and Spain, declaring that newly discovered lands to the west of an imaginary line in the Atlantic Ocean would belong to Spain and newly discovered lands to the east of the line would belong to Portugal.
Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs and conquered Mexico (1485-1547)
Fair skinned got of the Mayans that would rule Mexico; Mayans believed that Cortes was him.
Spanish noblemen; had one role: fight.
Led 168 men into Andes Mountains looking for the Incas; held their leader, Atahualpa, for ransom and killed him.
Hernando de Soto
Explored the southeastern United States; first to see the Mississippi River
Explored the southwest United States looking for the Seven Cities of Cibola but found nothing.
the transfer of plants, animals, and diseases between the Americas and Europe, Asia, and Africa