8th Grade Final Exam

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1607

Jamestown was founded: 1st permanent English
settlement in North America

1776

Declaration of Independence: Written mostly by
Thomas Jefferson. It stated grievances (complaints) against
the Acts (taxes) place by the English King George III.

1787

U.S. Constitution is created: At the Philadelphia
Convention, late known as Constitutional Convention,
delegates from the 13 states met to revise the Articles of
Confederation.

1803

Louisiana Purchase: Land purchased during President
Jefferson's time from France for $15 mil.

1861-1865

Civil War: War between the North (Union) and
the South (Confederacy) over State's Rights and slavery.

Thomas Jefferson

Main author of the Declaration of Independence. Became 3rd U.S. president during the Louisiana Purchase time.

James Madison

"Father of the Constitution" and the Bill of Rights. One of the authors of the Federalist
papers arguing for a strong national government. Democratic-Republican and the 4th U.S. president.

Frederick Douglass

Famous abolitionist. Born a slave, but fled to Massachusetts. Published abolitionistnewspaper, The North Star, and a best-selling autobiography.

Ulysses S. Grant

Commander of the Union Army during the Civil War. Later becomes 18th U.S. president.

Abraham Lincoln

16th U.S. President during the Civil War. Vowed to preserve the Union in his first
presidency, then during his second presidency, vowed to abolish slavery and make peace with the South.

Abolitionists

movement to end slavery. Leaders: Frederick Douglass, Sojourner
Truth, William Lloyd Garrison

Temperance

movement to end alcohol production, sale, and consumption.

Industrial Revolution

inspired from Europe, America saw its level of industry grow
which encouraged urbanization (the increased migration of more people to the city fromthe country farm life).

Federalists

Supported the ratification of the U.S. Constitution (strong central government).

Anti-federalists

Opposed ratification (wanted more power for the states) and wanted a Bill of Rights for American citizens.

Magna Carta

(1215) Limits power of the king to tax citizens and creates the rights for fair court trials. U.S. Constitution borrows these ideas.

Declaration of Independence

(1776) written mostly by Thomas Jefferson to list grievances against England.

Articles of Confederation

(1781) first U.S. Constitution which unified the colonies as states. Also gave the states more power than the national government.

Federalist papers

(1787) Essays published in newspapers to
promote ratification of the U.S. Constitution.

13th Amendment

(1865) Gave freedom to slaves in U.S.A.

14th Amendment

(1868) Gave citizenship to all people born in the U.S., even former slaves

15th Amendment

(1870) Gave voting rights to all U.S. citizens

1775-1781 American Revolution:

Between England and the 13 Colonies (America). The issue began with taxes on the colonies to repay the French and Indian War debt. Colonists were angered for having no colonial representatives in England to negotiate these taxes. Colonists win and become the United States of America.

Lexington and Concord:

First shots of the American Revolution

Yorktown

Last battle of the American Revolution

Virginia House of Burgesses

First representative assembly (legislature) in the colonies.

Unalienable Rights

Basic rights that cannot be taken away from people, such as "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness." These rights are stated in the Declaration of Independence.

Checks and Balances

Each branch of government can check the power of the other two branches. Keeps the three branches balanced in power.

Federalism

Division of power between the national and state government

Manifest Destiny

the idea that the U.S. was destined to expand from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean (11th President James K. Polk)

Protective Tariff

tax on imported goods designed to help U.S. companies. Tax made foreign goods expensive.

Separation of Powers

division of governmental power between three branches: Legislative, Executive, and Judicial

Republicanism

government style where citizens rule through their elected officials

Emancipation Proclamation

(Jan 1863) Given by President Lincoln, "frees" the slaves living in the Confederate States of America. Changes the purpose of the Civil War from preserving the Union to ending slavery as well.

Washington's Farewell Address

1797) Washington warns against entering into alliances (groups) with other countries. Also warns against forming political parties in the U.S.

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