If you cut an object into pieces, the density
stays the same.
As temperature increases, density
As pressure increases,
Water is the most dense as a
liquid at 4 degrees Celsius.
Water ___ when it freezes, and it's volume_________.
expands; increases from 4 degrees to 0 degrees C.
Most substances are most dense as a
The amount of space an object occupies is
the quantity of matter the object contains.
the force of gravity acting on an object.
An inference is a conclusion or interpretation based upon observations.
a conclusion or interpretation based upon observations.
Most changes in the enviroment are
cyclic and predictable.
An interface is a
boundary or zone of contact between two different properties where energy is exchanged.
Dynamic Equilibrium exists when
energy gained equals energy lost.
The earth rotates from
west to east.
The Earth rotates
clockwise, 15 degrees per hour.
Any location to your west has an
earlier time and any location to the east has a later time.
The altitude of Polaris measures a person's
latitude north of the equator.
Latitude lines go east to west, but measure ____ and are based on ____.
distance north or south of the equator; earth's rotation and our ovservation of the Sun & stars.
Longitude lines go north to south but measure ____ and relate to ____.
east or west of the prime meridian; time zones.
If you know the time at your location and the time at the Prime Meridian, you can determine
The closer the isolines are together, the
steeper the slope or gradient
A river flow in the direction
opposite of the bends of the countour lines.
from sediments that compact and compress (clay, silt, sand, pebbles, etc.), chemical processes (evaporites that precipitate out of seawater); organic processes (shells and skeletal remains). Layered and fossils are found in these types of rocks.
Cooling and Solidification of Magma or Lava. No fossils are found. If it cools fast, it has small, fine crystals: Extrusive: cools on or near surface. It if cools slowly, it has coarse, large crystals: Intrusive: cools deep underground.
Recrystallized due to heat and pressure. Banding and distorion present. Density increases.
The element that comprises most of the earth's crust by weight and volume is
The second most abundant element by weight in the crust is
Minerals have different physical
their internal arrangement of atoms is different.
Physical Tests for Minerals:
Cleavage (breaks evenly), Fracture (breaks jagged), color, harness (moh's scale), streak (powder on ceramic tile), luster (how it reflects light).
Natural Resources are
substances that come from earth.
Nonrenewable Resources are _____. Renewable resources are _______.
coal, petroleum oil, and fossil fuels; water power, solar and geothermal energy.
Deformed strata are
rock layers that have been changed: tilted, faulted, folded.
mountain rande in which trhe ocean crust is enlargins and spreading. two ocean plates are diverging.
Converging continental plates make
a mountain range (Himalayas).
Converging ocean plates make
a trench (valley). Tonga trench, Mariana trench, Aleutian trench.
A converging continental plate and ocean plate make a trench in the ocean and a mountain on the continent (West Coast of S. America).
a trench in the ocean and a mountain on the continent (West Coast of S. America).
Igneous rock along oceanic ridges is
younger than the igneous rock father from the ridge.
The continental crust is ____; the oceanic crust is ____.
granite, thick, and low density; basalt, thin, and very dense.
Convection cells exist in the ____ and they ________.
Mantle; move the tectonic plates. When 2 adjacent convection cell arros are pointing up, the heat flow is high and a ridge is formed. When the arrows poitn down, the heat flow is low and a trench is formed.
Magnetic poles reverse direction to give proof that
the ocean floor is spreading. Rocks the same distance to ther idge are the same age and same polatiry.
Similar rocks, fossils, and minerals are found on the west coast of Africa and the east coast of South america. This supports
the theory of Pangea.
Crustal activity occurs along specific belts around hte world, along the ridges, and where plate boundaries meet.
Earthquakes and volcanoes are found in the same area.
Hot spots are
areas of volcanism where magma lifts up within the interior plates.
P-waves are ___ than s-waves.
P-waves travel through solid and liquids while S-waves only travel through solids.
S-waves do not travelt hrough liquids. S-waves do not travel through the outer core.
In order to locate an epicenter
3 seismograph stations are needed.
If you only have one seismograph reading, you can
find out the distance to the epicenter.
The composition of the Earth's core is said to be the same as
the composition of meteorites.
The earth's innter core is composed of
iron and nickle.
A Tsunami is
a series of waves generated by undersea earthquakes.
Some ways to prepare for a natural disaster are:
develop and practice a family plan; have emergency food, water, medicines; batter operated radio; evacuation route; locate gas, water, and electrical shutoff; contact local agencies for information.
The best conditions for frost action are
clod and moiust conditions. Water freezes and expands, making the colume greater. (Physical Weathering).
The best conditions for chemical weathering are
hot and moist conditions.
The number one agent of erosion is
The primary force behind erosion is
a high rate of weathering occurs when rocks are
thin, small, soft, or flat.
In a stream, large particles roll and bounce on the bottom , colloids (small solid sediment) are
carried in suspension and dissolved minerals are carried in solution.
As gradient increases,
stream velocity increases, and runoff increases.
As stream discharge increases,
the stream velocity increases.
On the outside curve of a stream, the water's celocity is
fastest and erosion occurs.
On the Inside curve of a stream, the water's velocity is
slowest and desposition occurs.
On a straight part of a stream , the velocity is
greatest in the center.
Heavy, dense, and round particles settle out
first in the water.
Greaded Bedding (Verticle Sorting)
The largest sediments are on the bottom. Horizontal Sorthing: large particles deposit first while the smaller ones are carried out father before settling. Ex: Boulders, cobbles, pebbles, sand, silt, and then clay.
sotred, round, smooth, v-shaped valleys
pitted, frosted, angular, sorted, fine-grained, cross-bedding.
Man increases erosion of land by activities such as
cutting down trees, poor farming methods, and mining.
unsorted, screatched, polished, unconsolidated, u-shaped valleys.
hill of unsorted sediments where glacier melts.
ridge of glacial till that marks the front end of a glacier.
oval shaped mound of till.
formed when a large block of glacial ice melted, leaving a depression in the ground.
layers of smaller and sorted sediments, deposited by meltwater in front of a terminal moraine.
Wave action rounds sediments as a result of abrasion. Waves break because friction slows down the trough of a wave. Waves approaching a shoreline move sand parallel to the shore
within the zone of breaking waves.
In deep water, water particles rotate in a circular motion while
waves move forward.