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A sample in which the characteristics of the sample are the same as those of the population is a(n):
A) variables sample.
B) representative sample.
C) attributes sample.
D) random sample.

b

When the auditor decides to select less than 100 percent of the population for testing, the auditor is said to use:
A) audit sampling.
B) representative sampling.
C) poor judgment.
D) estimation sampling.

a

To determine if a sample is truly representative of the population, an auditor would be required to:
A) conduct multiple samples of the same population.
B) never use sampling because of the expense involved.
C) audit the entire population.
D) use systematic sample selection.

c

One of the causes of nonsampling risk is:
A) improper supervision and instruction of the client's employees.
B) ineffective audit procedures.
C) inadequate sample size.
D) exceptions being found in the sample.

b

Which one of the choices below is most correct regarding a cause of sampling risk?
A) Ineffective use of audit procedures
B) Testing less than the entire population
C) Use of extensive tests of controls
D) The use of random sampling

b

An auditor can increase the likelihood that a sample is representative by using care in:
A)
Designing the sampling process Designing the sample selection
Yes Yes

B)
Designing the sampling process Designing the sample selection
No No

C)
Designing the sampling process Designing the sample selection
Yes No

D)
Designing the sampling process Designing the sample selection
No Yes

a

Which of the following is the risk that audit tests will not uncover existing exceptions in a sample?
A) Sampling risk
B) Nonsampling risk
C) Audit risk
D) Detection risk

b

Which of the following is the risk that an auditor will reach an incorrect conclusion because a sample is not representative of the population?
A) Sampling risk
B) Nonsampling risk
C) Audit risk
D) Detection risk

a

Sampling risk may be controlled by:
A)
Adjusting the sample size Using an appropriate method of selecting sample items
Yes Yes

B)
Adjusting the sample size Using an appropriate method of selecting sample items
No No

C)
Adjusting the sample size Using an appropriate method of selecting sample items
Yes No

D)
Adjusting the sample size Using an appropriate method of selecting sample items
No Yes

a

Which of the following statements is most correct?
A) A sample of all items of a population will eliminate sampling risk, but increase nonsampling risk.
B) The use of an appropriate sample selection technique ensures a representative sample.
C) The auditor's failure to recognize an exception is a significant cause of sampling risk.
D) The use of inappropriate audit procedures is a significant cause of nonsampling risk.

d

There are three phases in both statistical and nonstatistical sampling. The first phase is to:
A) generate random numbers for the sample.
B) evaluate the results.
C) plan the sample.
D) select the sample.

c

When auditors wish to evaluate a sample statistically, an acceptable selection method is:
A) systematic sample selection.
B) judgmental selection.
C) haphazard selection.
D) block sample selection.

a

Which of the following statements is most correct with concerning the quantification of sampling risk?
A) Sampling risk cannot be quantified.
B) Sampling risk can be quantified only when nonprobabilistic selection techniques are used to select the sample.
C) Sampling risk can be quantified only when probabilistic selection techniques are used to select the sample.
D) None of the above.

c

Which of the following statements is most correct with respect to the evaluation of nonprobabilistic sample results?
A) It is acceptable to make nonprobabilistic evaluations only when probabilistic sample selection is used.
B) It is acceptable to make nonprobabilistic evaluations only if the auditor cannot quantify sampling risk.
C) It is never acceptable to evaluate a nonprobabilistic sample using statistical methods.
D) All of the above are correct.

c

Which of the following statements is a valid criticism of nonstatistical sampling?
A) Many audit tests, such as footing of journals, must be performed outside a statistical sampling context.
B) The cost of performing random selection or testing often exceeds the benefits.
C) Nonstatistical sampling does not differ substantially from statistical sampling methods.
D) Conclusions may be drawn in more precise ways when using statistical sampling methods.

d

Which of the following statements is not correct regarding probabilistic and nonprobabilistic sample selection?
A) In probabilistic selection, every population item has a known chance of being selected.
B) It is acceptable to evaluate a nonprobabilistic sample using statistical methods.
C) Probabilistic selection is required for all statistical sampling methods.
D) Both methods are acceptable and commonly used.

b

Nonprobabilistic selection methods are not based on mathematical probabilities; therefore:
A) the extent to which a sample is representative of the population may be difficult to determine.
B) they are discouraged by the AICPA.
C) they are not allowed by the Statements on Auditing Standards.
D) they are not as effective as statistical sampling.

a

An advantage of using statistical sampling techniques is that such techniques:
A) mathematically measure risk.
B) eliminate the need for judgmental decisions.
C) define the values of precision and reliability required to provide audit satisfaction.
D) have been established in the courts to be superior to judgmental sampling.

a

Auditors who prefer statistical to nonstatistical sampling believe that the principal advantage of statistical sampling flows from its ability to:
A) quantify sampling risk.
B) promote a more legally defensible procedural approach.
C) define the precision required to provide audit satisfaction.
D) establish conclusive audit evidence with decreased audit effort.

a

Which of the following statements best expresses the impact that the performance of audit procedures has on statistical vs. nonstatistical sampling?
A) Audit procedures on the sample item will vary as a result of using either statistical or nonstatistical sampling.
B) The audit procedures will be the same for either statistical or nonstatistical sampling but they must be performed differently for each.
C) Statistical sampling requires quantitative audit procedures, whereas nonstatistical sampling requires judgmental audit procedures.
D) Audit procedures on the sample item will not vary as a result of using either statistical or nonstatistical sampling.

d

A sample in which every possible combination of items in the population has an equal chance of constituting the sample is a:
A) random sample.
B) statistical sample.
C) judgment sample.
D) representative sample.

a

The process which requires the calculation of an interval and then selects the items based on the size of the interval is:
A) statistical sampling.
B) random sample selection.
C) systematic sample selection.
D) computerized sample selection.

c

In systematic sample selection, the population size is divided by the number of sample items desired in order to determine the:
A) sampling interval.
B) tolerable exception rate.
C) computed upper exceptions rate.
D) mean.

a

Which of the following methods of sample selection is appropriately used when selecting a random sample?
A)
Auditor's judgmental
selection of items Use of random number generators Generalized audit software
Yes No Yes

B)
Auditor's judgmental
selection of items Use of random number generators Generalized audit software
No Yes Yes

C)
Auditor's judgmental
selection of items Use of random number generators Generalized audit software
Yes No No

D)
Auditor's judgmental
selection of items Use of random number generators Generalized audit software
No Yes No

b

Simple random sampling:
A) is used when there is a need to emphasize one or more types of population items.
B) requires both input and output parameters to be set when using a random number generator.
C) is generally used with replacement sampling.
D) is a probabilistic sampling method.

d

When a population is divided into subpopulations, usually by dollar size, and larger samples are taken from the subpopulation with the larger sizes, ________ is being used.
A) sampling with probability proportional to size
B) stratified sampling
C) block sampling
D) haphazard sampling

b

The advantage of systematic sample selection is that:
A) it is easy to use.
B) there is limited possibility of it being biased.
C) it is unnecessary to determine if the population is arranged randomly.
D) it automatically selects items material to the financial statements.

a

In performing a review of a client's cash disbursements, an auditor uses systematic sample selection with a random start. The primary disadvantage of this technique is population items:
A) may occur twice in the sample.
B) must be reordered in a systematic pattern before the sample can be drawn.
C) may occur in a systematic pattern, thus negating the randomness of the sample.
D) must be replaced in the population after sampling to permit valid statistical inference.

c

Which of the following is a correct statement regarding block sampling?
A) It is acceptable to use block sampling only if a reasonable number of blocks are used.
B) Block sampling uses sampling with replacement.
C) Block sampling is a probabilistic sampling method.
D) There is considerable cost and time involved when block sampling is used.

a

The most serious shortcoming of the haphazard sample selection method is:
A) it is not subject to statistical sampling methods.
B) it is time consuming to use.
C) it is costly to use.
D) it is difficult to remain completely unbiased in the selection.

d

Which of the following statements regarding block sampling is least likely to be true?
A) Block sampling is the selection of several items in sequence.
B) It is acceptable to use block sampling for tests of transactions only if a reasonable number of blocks is used.
C) Only one block should be selected to increase the probability of a representative sample.
D) Once the first item in the block is selected, the remainder of the block is chosen automatically.

c

When the auditor goes through a population and selects items using nonprobabilistic selection methods, without regard to their size, source, or other distinguishing characteristics, it is called:
A) block sample selection.
B) haphazard selection.
C) systematic sample selection.
D) statistical selection.

b

Which of the following occurrences would be least likely to warrant further audit attention for the auditor?
A) Deviations from client's established control procedures
B) Deviations from client's budgeted values
C) Monetary misstatements in populations of transaction data
D) Monetary misstatements in populations of account balance details

b

Which of the following statements is correct when dealing with sampling for exception rates?
A) The term exception refers to both deviations from the client's control procedures and amounts that are not monetarily correct.
B) When used with sampling, the term deviation is synonymous with the term exception.
C) The actual population exception rate is the same as the sample exception rate.
D) In using audit sampling for exception rates, the auditor is most concerned with the confidence interval.

a

In using audit sampling for exception rates:
A) the auditor wants to know the most the exception rate is likely to be.
B) sampling error is the likelihood that the auditor will miss a monetary misstatement.
C) the upper limit of the interval estimate is known as the sampling risk.
D) CUER cannot be considered in the context of specific audit objectives.

a

Which of the following is most correct when using audit sampling for exception rates?
A) Auditor is concerned with the lowest rate.
B) Auditor is concerned with the highest rate.
C) Auditor is concerned with the average on previous audits.
D) This doesn't impact the auditor's decision.

b

The highest estimated exception rate in the population at a particular acceptable risk of assessing control risk too low is:
A) the upper exception rate.
B) estimated population exception rate.
C) the computed upper exception rate.
D) the tolerable exception rate.

c

You are determining the significance of the following: you set a 5% risk of assessing control risk to low and your computation of the upper deviation risk is 7%. What could you conclude?
A) There is a 95% chance the deviation rate is the population is less than 5%.
B) There is a 5% chance the deviation rate in the population is less than 7%.
C) There is a 95% chance the deviation rate in the population exceeds 95%.
D) There is a 5% chance the deviation rate in the population exceeds 7%.

d

The risk which the auditor is willing to take in accepting a control as being effective when the true population exception rate is greater than a tolerable rate is the:
A) finite correction factor.
B) tolerable exception rate.
C) acceptable risk of overreliance.
D) estimated population exception rate.

c

The exception rate the auditor will permit in the population and still be willing to reduce the assessed level of control risk is called the:
A) tolerable exception rate.
B) estimated population exception rate.
C) acceptable risk of overreliance.
D) sample exception rate.

a

If the auditor decides to assess control risk at the moderate level in a private company audit, when in previous years the auditor set control risk at the maximum level, then tests of controls for the current year would be:
A) increased in number.
B) reduced in number.
C) not performed.
D) unchanged from prior planned settings.

a

When the computed upper exception rate is greater than the tolerable exception rate, it is necessary for the auditor to take specific action. Which of the following courses of action would be most difficult to justify?
A) Reduce the tolerable exception rate so as to accept the sample results.
B) Expand the sample size and perform more tests.
C) Revise the assessed control risk.
D) Write a letter to management which outlines the control deficiencies.

a

Which of the following would have the least impact in determining sample size?
A) Acceptable risk of overreliance
B) Risk of assessing control risk too low
C) Tolerable exception rate
D) Population size

d

Which of the following represents the best description of the tolerable exception?
A) The highest exception rate the auditor will permit in the control being tested and still conclude it is operating effectively
B) The highest exception rate the auditor expects to find in the population
C) The number of exceptions found in the sample divided by the sample size
D) The highest estimated exception rate in a population at a given EPER

a

When analyzing exceptions, the auditor should keep in mind that:
A) all exceptions must be reported to management.
B) they should determine the breakdown in the internal controls that allowed the exceptions to occur.
C) the nature of an exception and its causes have no effect on the qualitative evaluation of the system.
D) exceptions do not need to be analyzed if it is too costly.

b

The exception rate that the auditor will permit in the population and still be willing to use the preliminary control risk assessment is called the:
A) acceptable exception rate.
B) estimated population exception rate.
C) sample exception rate.
D) tolerable exception rate.

d

Auditors often use the ________ to determine the estimated population exception rate.
A) current year's audit results
B) tolerable exception rate
C) preceeding year's audit results
D) estimated computed by management

a

Place the following steps in their proper order:
1. Analyze exceptions
2. Select the sample
3. Define attributes and exception conditions
4. State the objectives of the audit test
5. Specify the tolerable exception rate
A) 1, 3, 2, 4, 5.
B) 4, 3, 1, 2, 5.
C) 4, 3, 5, 2, 1.
D) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.

c

If an auditor judgmentally selects a sample of one hundred items from a population and finds two exceptions, the auditor:
A) can conclude that the sample exception rate is 2%.
B) can conclude that the population exception rate is 2%.
C) can calculate the highest exception rate expected in the population.
D) cannot make any conclusions about either the sample or the population.

a

In testing controls, an overreliance on internal controls that reduces substantive tests and increases the likelihood of not detecting a material misstatement occurs because:
A) true deviation in the population was less than the sample.
B) true deviation in the population was greater than the sample.
C) auditor judgment was flawed.
D) it is inherent in the audit risk model.

b

Which of the following is the exception rate that the auditor expects to find before testing?
A) Sample exception rate
B) Estimated population exception rate
C) Computed exception rate
D) Tolerable exception rate

b

Which of the following is not a term related to evaluating results in audit sampling until after a sample is tested and evaluated?
A) Sample exception rate
B) Estimated population exception rate
C) Computed upper exception rate
D) Exception

b

The relationship of tolerable exception rate (TER) to sample size is:
A) direct (larger TER = larger sample).
B) inverse (larger TER = smaller sample).
C) variable (sometimes larger, sometimes smaller).
D) not determinable.

b

Which of the following must be set prior to testing a sample?
A) Sample exception rate
B) Achieved upper precision limit
C) Computed exception rate
D) Tolerable exception rate

d

The acceptable risk of overreliance:
A) is the risk that the auditor will erroneously conclude that the controls are less effective than they actually are.
B) is less of a concern to the auditors than the risk of underreliance.
C) represents the auditor's measure of sampling risk.
D) is determined by a statistical formula, and not by professional judgment.

c

The sample exception rate equals:
A) the number of exceptions in the population divided by the sample size.
B) the number of items in the population multiplied by the number of exceptions in the sample.
C) the number of exceptions in the sample divided by the sample size.
D) the number of exceptions in the population divided by the population size.

c

When defining the population:
A) it may be necessary to define separate populations for different audit procedures.
B) the auditor may generalize only about the population that has been sampled.
C) auditors can define the population to include any items they want.
D) all of the above.

d

One way to evaluate sampling risk when nonstatistical sampling is used is to:
A) subtract the sample exception rate from the tolerable exception rate.
B) add the sample exception rate and the tolerable exception rate.
C) subtract the sample exception rate from the acceptable risk of overreliance.
D) add the sample exception rate and the acceptable risk of overreliance.

a

A danger in setting the acceptable risk of overreliance too low is:
A)
The risk that the auditor is willing to take of accepting a control as
ineffective when it is effective The risk that the auditor is willing to take of accepting a control as effective when it is ineffective
Yes Yes

B)
The risk that the auditor is willing to take of accepting a control as
ineffective when it is effective The risk that the auditor is willing to take of accepting a control as effective when it is ineffective
No No

C)
The risk that the auditor is willing to take of accepting a control as
ineffective when it is effective The risk that the auditor is willing to take of accepting a control as effective when it is ineffective
Yes No

D)
The risk that the auditor is willing to take of accepting a control as
ineffective when it is effective The risk that the auditor is willing to take of accepting a control as effective when it is ineffective
No Yes

d

When using statistical sampling, the auditor would most likely require a smaller sample if the:
A) population increases.
B) desired reliability decreases.
C) desired precision interval narrows.
D) expected exception rate increases.

b

Whenever auditors use sampling, they risk making incorrect conclusions about the population. The risk that the auditor concludes that controls are nore effective than they actually are is known as the:
A) risk of overreliance.
B) risk of underreliance.
C) risk that the sample is not representative of the population.
D) risk that the sample conclusions cannot be useful because of nonprobability sampling.

a

When choosing the appropriate acceptable risk of overreliance, the auditor needs to:
A) rely on his/her professional judgment.
B) err on the side of conservatism.
C) consult the professional standards.
D) follow SEC guidelines.

a

The difference between the tolerable exception rate and the estimated population exception rate is called:
A) accuracy of the initial sample estimate.
B) inflation factor of the initial sample estimate.
C) precision of the initial sample estimate.
D) reliability of the initial sample estimate.

c

If the result obtained from a particular sample for control and substantive tests of transactions is critical to the formation of an audit opinion, which of the following is the most important to the auditor in concluding of the appropriateness and sufficiency of evidence gathered?
A) Acceptable risk of overreliance
B) Estimated population exception rate
C) Tolerable exception rate
D) Size of the population

a

There is a(n) ________ relationship between acceptable risk of overreliance and planned sample size.
A) direct.
B) inverse.
C) proportional.
D) exponential.

b

Which of the following results in a larger sample size?
A) Decrease the estimated population exception rate and decrease the tolerable exception rate.
B) Increase the estimated population exception rate and decrease the tolerable exception rate.
C) Decrease the estimated population exception rate and increase the tolerable exception rate.
D) Increase the estimated population exception rate and increase the tolerable exception rate

b

An auditor plans to examine a sample of 40 canceled checks for a countersignature which is prescribed in the client's control procedures manual. Two of the checks in sample cannot be located by the company or the auditor. The auditor would most likely:
A) treat the missing checks as a deviation when evaluating the results of the sample.
B) draw a conclusion on a sample size of 38.
C) substitute two more checks to get to a sample size of 40.
D) recalculate the sample excluding the original 40 checks.

a

Rodgers CPA believes that the rate of client billing errors is 4% and has established a tolerable deviation rate of 6%. In auditing client invoices Rodgers should use:
A) stratified sampling.
B) classical sampling.
C) proportional sampling.
D) attributes sampling.

d

Attributes sampling would be an appropriate method to use on which one of the following procedures in an audit program?
A) Review sales transactions for large and unreasonable amounts.
B) Observe whether the duties of the accounts receivable clerk are separate from handling cash.
C) Examine a sample of duplicate sales invoices for credit approval by the credit manager.
D) Review the aged schedule of accounts receivable to determine if receivables from officers are

c

Attributes sampling is based on the ________ distribution, in which each possible sample in the population has one of two possible values, such as yes or no.
A) random
B) binomial
C) statistical
D) nonstatistical

b

For which of the following audit procedures would audit sampling not be appropriate?
A) Review sales transactions for large and unusual amounts.
B) Examine a sample of duplicate sales invoices for credit approval.
C) Compare the quantity on duplicate sales invoices with the quantity on related shipping documents.
D) Audit sampling is appropriate for each of the above procedures.

a

A principal advantage of statistical methods of attributes sampling over nonstatistical methods is that they provide a scientific basis for establishing the:
A) risk of assessing control risk too low.
B) tolerable exception rate.
C) expected population exception rate.
D) sample size.

d

In using sampling distribution for attributes, which one of the following must be known to evaluate the sample results?
A) Estimated dollar value of the population
B) Standard exception of the values in the population
C) Actual exception rate of the attribute in the population
D) Sample size

d

When audit procedures have been completed for an attributes sampling application, the auditor must generalize from the sample to the population. Which of the following statements would be incorrect regarding this process?
A) The auditor would use an attributes sampling table to determine the computed upper exception rate.
B) If the sample size is not equal to those provided for in the attributes sampling evaluation tables, the auditor cannot use attribute sampling.
C) It would be wrong for the auditor to conclude that the population exception rate is exactly the same as the sample exception rate.
D) In selecting the table corresponding to the ARO, it should be the same as the ARO used for determining the initial sample size.

b

When deciding the acceptability of the population:
A) the methodology for deciding the acceptability of the population for attributes differs from determining the acceptability for nonstatistical sampling.
B) before the population can be considered acceptable, the CUER determined on the basis of the actual sample results must be less than or equal to TER when both are based on the same ARO.
C) when the CUER is greater than the TER, the auditor must increase the sample size.
D) the CUER is compared with the TER in total, not for each attribute.

b

In the evaluation of the results of an attributes sample, the fact that the exception rate in the sample was 2% rather than the estimated population exception rate of 4% would cause the computed upper exception rate to:
A) be less than the tolerable exception rate.
B) equal the tolerable exception rate.
C) exceed the tolerable exception rate.
D) cannot be determined from the information given.

a

As the auditor you are assessing the proper sample size to use in testing controls. When using attributes sampling which of the following is most correct?
A) A 10% change in population size will have the least effect on sample size.
B) A 10% change in the tolerable deviation rate will have the least effect on sample size.
C) A 10% change in the expected deviation rate will have the least effect on sample size.
D) A 10% change in the tolerable will have the least effect on sample size.

a

In attributes sampling, an estimate of the expected population exception rate is necessary to plan the sample size. The relationship of expected population exception rate (EPER) to sample size is:
A) direct (small EPER = small sample).
B) inverse (small EPER = large sample).
C) a variable (sometimes small, sometimes large) dependent on other factors present.
D) indeterminate.

a

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