World Geography Honors KEY Terms Final Part 1

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66 terms

Silk Road

a trade route system that connected China all the way through the Middle East, an ancient trade route between China and the Mediterranean (4,000 miles)

Savanna

a flat grassland in tropical or subtropical regions

Fetish

an object believed to have magical powers; African dolls that are believed to come to life, and personify things like a warrior, fertility, or agriculture.

Indian Ocean Trade System

A network of trade established between the Indian subcontinent and the Swahili trade cities of Eastern Africa. Ocean-going merchants of from the Arabian Peninsula used the regular patterns of the monsoon winds to travel back and forth caring cargoes of textiles, spices, and precious metals.

Sub-Saharan Africa

the area of Africa south of the Sahara.

Griot

Tribal African storyteller; memorizes the history of the tribe and knows all of the public affairs. Main source of African history

Child soldiers

The military use of children takes three distinct forms: children can take direct part in hostilities (child soldiers), or they can be used in support roles such as porters, spies, messengers, look outs, and sexual slaves; or they can be used for political advantage either as human shields or in propaganda.

Blood Diamonds

diamonds that come from war-torn parts of Africa and are mined under circumstances that violate basic human rights

Trans-Saharan Trade Route

mainly involved nomadic groups. At first thought to have traded cows, but then horses appeared. Most importantly traded camels.

Bantu

"More than 300 languages spoken south of the equator belong to the branch of the Niger-Congo family know as the.... meaning "people" in most of the languages"

Shaman

The single person who takes on the roles of priest, counselor, and physician and acts as a conduit to the supernatural world in a shamanist culture.

iron

a metal used to many different empires' advantages. Could be used to create tools, weapons, and agricultural tools

silk

China's main export.

salt trade

Trans-Saharan Trade. The item still holds a high value in Africa today.

Nile River

The world's longest river, which flows northward through East Africa into the Mediterranean Sea

Roman Republic

the ancient Roman state from 509 BC until Augustus assumed power in 27 BC

Caravan Cities

Influenced from ... trading, which is when the nomads also wanted to bring northward the primary product of the south: the aromatic resins frankincense and myrrh that were burned in religious rituals. This trading then resulted in this term, in which Arab pastorialists became primary suppliers of animal power throughout the region.

Ethiopia

a Christian kingdom that developed in the highlands of eastern Africa under the dynasty of King Lalaibela; retained Christianity in the face of Muslim expansion elsewhere in Africa

Niger River

located in West Africa, its rich soil gave rise to several civilizations; it also helped unite the region by enabling merchants and travelers to spread goods and ideas up and down the river

Roman Senate

A council whose members were the heads of wealthy, landowning families. Originally an advisory body to the early kings, in the era of the Roman Republic the Senate effectively governed the Roman state and the growing empire.

Camel

one of the primary trading items in the trans-saharan trade route

Desertification

in areas with dry climates, a process caused by a combination of poor farming practices, overgrazing, and drought that turns productive land into desert

Congo

a river in central Africa. OR a republic in central Africa

Patrician

of the hereditary aristocracy or ruling class of ancient Rome

Plebian

an ordinary citizen in the ancient Roman republic

Qin Empire

221 - 206 B.C.E.
one of the warring states. Conquered its rivals. China's 1st empire. Its founder = Shi Huangdi. Unified its states. Road system. Burned books to disconnect from the past. The name of "China" may have come from this word. Legalism (human nature = wicked. Needs strong discipline) Instead of eldest son gaining property, required that it be distributed to all heirs. Targeted aristocracy. Abolished slavery. Created standards which unified (weights, measures, coinage, uniform law code, common system of writing, etc.) Built Great Wall (protect against northern nomads) Died from rebellion (from labor) when founder died.

Etruscans

people from Etruria , ( north of Rome) that took control of Rome and Latium. Ruled Rome for more than 100 years. Built up Rome, streets, temples. Skilled metal workers Rome became rich from mining and trade. Land was the basis of wealth. (status is according to landownership)

Octavian

Caesar Augustus's ( the granchild to Julius Caesar) other name. The first emperor of the Roman Empire (Principate)

Paterfamilias

"The basic unit of Roman society was the family, made up of several generations of family members plus domestic slaves. The oldest living male exercised absolute authority over other family members."

Shi Huangdi

the founder of the Qin Dynasty

Twelve Tables

the basis of the Roman Republic. The patricians created laws that mainly focussed on their interests, which was disturbed however, by the plebian want to protect their own rights (numbers and the threat to secede forced the action to form, instead of being stopped by the patricians)

Anthony

a successor to Julius Caesar. :)

Pax Romana

the Roman peace

Han Dynasty

imperial dynasty that ruled China (most of the time) from 206 BC to 221 and expanded its boundaries and developed its bureaucracy. Founder = Liu Bang.construction of canals. Had a census. Every man donated a month of labor per year to public work projects. Required 2 years of military service. Built walls and forts. Like Romans, depended on a large amount of plebians to contribute to taxes and services to the state. Legalist, but a little bit of Confusianism. (education and aviod violence)

Law of Nations

a branch of Roman law that was applied to citizens in all parts of the EMPIRE regardless of nationality

Jesus

Religious leader and founder of Christianity. "a young carpenter from Galilee. Some Experts agree that he was a rabbi. Or prophet. offended by what he perceived as Jewish religious and political leader's excess concern with money and power... he prescribed a return to the personal faith and spirituality of an earlier age."

Romanization

the spread of the Latin language and Roman way of life

Gentry

the class next in wealth below the aristocrats. Qin and Han allied with them to weaken the aristocrats and exclude them from political posts.

Hannibal

general who commanded the Carthaginian army in the second Punic War

Simon Peter

one of the 12 apostles. In charge of the foundation of Church in Rome, leadership roled assigned by Jesus. He was present at incidents such as transfiguration. He denies Jesus 3 times. Dies through martyrdom by crucifixion, glorifying God.

Aqueducts

long elevated or underground conduits that carried water from a source to an urban center using only the force of gravity. Used by the Romans

Constantinople

originally called Byzantium. Constantine then changed the name. survived the third-century crisis better than the western half of the Roman empire.

Julius Caesar

Roman general and dictator. He was murdered by a group of senators and his former friend Brutus who hoped to restore the normal running of the republic.

Paul of Tarsus

a Jew from the city of Tarsus, who converted to Christianity. Then devoted his life to spreading the Word of God.

Byzantine Empire

Historians' name for the eastern portion of the Roman Empire from the fourth century onward. The western half of the empire fell under Germanic rule. Had one of the first official religions: Christianity.

Latins

Early Roman ancestors who influenced the language of Rome

Pompeii

Roman city near Naples, Italy, which was buried during an eruption of Mount Vesuvius in A.D. 79.

Constantine

Roman emperor. After reuniting the Roman Empire, he moved the capital to Constantinople, and made Christianity a favored religion.

Monsoon

seasonal winds in the Indian Ocean caused by the differences in temperature between the rapidly heating and cooling landmasses of Africa and Asia and the slowly changing ocean waters.

Karma

In Indian tradition, the residue of deeds performed in past and present lives adheres to a spirit and determines what form it will assume in the next life cycle.

Mahayana Buddhism

branch of Buddhism followed in China, Japan, and Central Asia. The focus is on reverence for Buddha and for bodhisattvas, enlightened persons who have postponed nirvana to help others attain enlightenment.

Theravada Buddhism

branch of Buddhism followed in Sri Lanka and much of Southeast Asia. Remains close to the original principles set forth by the Buddha; it downplays the importance of gods and emphasizes austerity and the individual's search for enlightenment.

Ahimsa

a Buddhist and Hindu and especially Jainist doctrine holding that all forms of life are sacred and urging the avoidance of violence

Ascetic

Buddhism. An individual who completely seperates themselves from society, and denies possessions. Metitates in prayer.

Wudu

ritual cleansing of oneself before prayer by Muslims. (wash before prayer)

Jihad

a holy struggle or striving by a Muslim for a moral or spiritual or political goal

Shariah

the code of law derived from the Koran and from the teachings and example of Muhammad.

Oracle Bones

animal bones carved with written characters which were used for telling the future. Used in China, in which you write the question on the bone, bake it, and then the cracks on it are then interpreted for an answer

Confucianism

The system of ethics, education, and statesmanship taught by Confucius and his disciples, stressing love for humanity, ancestor worship, reverence for parents, and harmony in thought and conduct.

Laozi

founder of Daoism

Daoism

believef that the world is always changing and is devoid of absolute morality or meaning. They accept the world as they find it, avoid futile struggles, and deviate as little as possible from the Dao, or 'path' of nature.

Arabesque

Islamic art/geometric patterns that are repeated over and over

Hijra

the flight of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina to escape persecution a.d. 622: regarded as the beginning of the Muslim Era.

Imam

(Islam) the man who leads prayers in a mosque

Bedouins

Nomadic herders who used camels to cross the desert;

Umayyads

A dynasty that ruled the Muslim Empire from 661 to 750 and later established a kingdom in al-Andalus.

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