AP Psychology - Schools and Perspectives

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Wilhelm Wundt

"Father of Psychology"

Structuralism

ID the components of the mind

Edward Titchener

Structuralism

Functionalism

How the conscious mind helps the individual adapt to the environment

William James

Functionalism, "The Principles of Psychology"

Behaviorism

study of observable behavior

John Watson

Behaviorism

Gestalt Psychology

People think about and perceive wholes rather than simply combinations of separate elements

Max Wertheimer

Gestalt Psychology

Psychoanalysis

Importance of unconscious causes of behavior

Sigmund Freud

Psychoanalysis, case studies, conversion hysteria, psychic determinism, childhood experiences

Biological

genetic, brain structure, neural, neurochemical, endocrine

Wilder Penfield

biological perspective, mapped the brain

Roger Sperry

biological perspective, discovered that the two hemispheres of the brain have different functions

Behavioral

learning, conditioned, rewarded/punished, observed, modeled, environment

B. F. Skinner

behavioral perspective, utopian society, "Walden Two"

Cognitive

thoughts, the way you think, how you frame your world

Jean Piaget

cognitive perspective, Theory of Cognitive Development

Humanistic

you choose to - free will, free choice, if it is to be, it is up to me

Psychodynamic

psychoanalytic, unconscious motivations, childhood experiences, Freud

Jung

psychodynamic perspective, introvert vs. extrovert, personality

Adler

psychodynamic perspective, we are inferior and try to be superior, inferiority complex

Freud and Klein

psychodynamic perspective, children and their experiences

Klein

psychodynamic perspective, play therapy

Sociocultural

multicultural - global perspective v. whitey - anthropology studies

ethnocentrism

viewing other cultures using your own culture as the standard by which everyone else must live

Evolutionary/Sociobiological

adaptation, survival of the fittest - amalgam of bio and behaviorism

eclectic

counselors who, when they treat people, don't stay dead set on one perspective

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