writer who coined the term Middle Ages
period in European history from the end of the Roman empire until the Renaissance
a kinght who has sworn loyalty to a particular lord
a portion of land given to a vassal by a lord
A medieval European political system that defines the military obligations and relations between the lord and his vassals
economic system in which the landed estates of a lord were worked by the peasants under his jurisdiction in exchange for his protection
a peasant who lost his freedom and was bound to the estate of a lord
Pagan Germanic peoples from Scandinavia. Raided European countries and wealthy monasteries.
Central European steppe peoples that were later called Hungarians. Raided Germany.
Charles lll (The Simple)
Comes up with a simple plan in 911 to9 promote French national security. He finds a group of fierce Vikings to fight the vikings that have settled in the river valleys. Make a deal with the Viking Rollo. Gives Rollo land and Rollo must protect the land from other Viking invasions.
Viking given land from Charles lll, becomes the Duke of Normandy.
William the Conqueror
Duke of Normandy that becomes the king of England. Takes English throne at the battle of hastings in 1066. Keeps the office of sheriff: catches criminals, collects taxes, and run the army.
In William the Conqueror's reign a priest and six local people who swore an oath to answer truthfully all questions about their wealth.
record of the amount of money people in England had. Written during the reign of William the Conqueror.
King Henry ll
English king who established common law and ciruit juges. Took power from church courts by doing away with trial by ordeal. Argues with Thomas Beckett,the Archbishop of Canterbury, about shutting the church courts down. Does not shut down church courts
Son of Henry ll. Fails to take Normandy from Philip Augustus. Signs the Magna Carta in 1215
"Great Charter". Signifies that the king and the government shall be under the law and that everyone must obey the law. Puts restrictions on Kings' power
A law accepted by an entire country and was applied by the king's court. Created by Henry ll
Royal officials who travelled in given districts to hear civil and criminal cases. Sent out by Henry ll every year
In 987 claims to be the king of France. Starts line of Capetian kings.
Philip ll (Augustus)
Takes Normandy from England. Gets a lot of land to be directly controlled by the king. Establishes the ile de France: a house surrounded by the city of Paris and controlled by the king.
King Loius lX
French king that establishes the Parlement of Paris: a supreme court that hears cases on appeal. Tells the nobles that the Parlement and himself must agree with the decision made in a case.
King Otto l
German king who stopped the Magyar attacks. Begins a dynasty of Holy Roman Emperors.
Fights with Pope Gregory Vll aboput lay investiture. Supportes by german religious officials. Gets reinstated after being excommunicated. Wants a new Pope to crown him Holy Roman Emperor, goes with his new Pope to Rome. Leaves back to Germany
Wants to get money from Italy. Italian nobles are not paying taxes so he gets his army and fights them. Loses this battle: Battle of Legnano in 1176. Battle of Legnano signifies that you don't need a title to win, only cash. In the future there will be a capitalist or cash economy
A monastery established with the support of William the Pious Duke of Aquitaine. This monastery will produce priests that are religious and they will follow the rule of St. Benedict. First Pope from this Monastery is Leo lX.
Pope Gregory Vll
Clunaic pope that gets into a fight with Henry lV about lay investiture. Nobles of Henry lV support this pope. Excommunicates Henry lV. Forgives Henry lV. Henry lV comes to Rome so this pope calls the Duke of Normandy to come and help him. Normans were former Vikings so they raid Rome. First to declare that we should help the Byzantine crusaders fight the Muslims.
Selection and appointment of church officials by secular authorities.
Concordat of Worms
A compromise that ended lay investiture in 1122. Says even though king is not allowed to choose chruch officials he can veto the chosen church official if he feels the chosen official is a bad choice.
Pope Urban ll
Pope during the first Crusade.
Holy wars sponsored by the papacy for the recovery of the Holy Land from the Muslims in the late 11th and early 12th centuries. Reasons for this: 1. save Byzatine empire 2. Expansion 3. Power Maybe the great schism could be healed
King of England and Duke of Aquitaine. Wanted to be king of France. Fights with Philip Vl. Starts the Hundred years war.
Joan of Arc
Claimed to be hearing the voices of saints. These voices told her that Carles Vll had to be crowned king of France and that France has to beat to English. Kidnapped by Burgundians and taken to English. Accused of withcraft and killed.