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judiciary act of 1789

In 1789 Congress passed this Act which created the federal-court system. The act managed to quiet popular apprehensions by establishing in each state a federal district court that operated according to local procedures.

Bill of Rights

a statement of fundamental rights and privileges (especially the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution)

Hamilton's Economic Plan

federalist plan for americans economic growth, which laid the groundwork for america's industrialization

Whiskey Rebellion

In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. In October, 1794, the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion. The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem, in contrast to the inability of the government under the Articles of Confederation to deal with Shay's Rebellion.

Federalist Party

a major political party in the United States in the early 19th century

Democratic party

One of the two major U.S political party;founded in 1828 by Andrew Jackson to support a decentralized government and state's rights

Election of 1800

Jefferson and Burr each received 73 votes in the Electoral College, so the House of Representatives had to decide the outcome. The House chose Jefferson as President and Burr as Vice President.

Midnight Judges

The 16 judges that were added by the Judiciary Act of 1801 that were called this because Adams signed their appointments late on the last day of his administration.

Marbury vs. Madison

Case in which the supreme court first asserted th power of Judicial review in finding that the congressional statue expanding the Court's original jurisdiction was unconstitutional

Louisiana Purchase

territory in western United States purchased from France in 1803 for $15 million

alien and sedition acts

These consist of four laws passed by the Federalist Congress and signed by President Adams in 1798: the Naturalization Act, which increased the waiting period for an immigrant to become a citizen from 5 to 14 years; the Alien Act, which empowered the president to arrest and deport dangerous aliens; the Alien Enemy Act, which allowed for the arrest and deportation of citizens of countries at was with the US; and the Sedition Act, which made it illegal to publish defamatory statements about the federal government or its officials. The first 3 were enacted in response to the XYZ Affair, and were aimed at French and Irish immigrants, who were considered subversives. The Sedition Act was an attempt to stifle Democratic-Republican opposition, although only 25 people were ever arrested, and only 10 convicted, under the law. The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, which initiated the concept of "nullification" of federal laws were written in response to the Acts.

Virginia and kentucky resolutions

Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, they declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional.

hartford convention

Meeting of Federalists near the end of the War of 1812 in which the party listed it's complaints against the ruling Republican Party. These actions were largley viewed as traitorous to the country and lost the Federalist much influence

tecumeseh

Cheif og the indian tribe... supported by the british because.. they want the Natives to attack Americans and stop western colonization

treaty of greenville 1796

Miami Confederacy agrees to give up most of Ohio in exchange for $20,000 and a yearly sum of $10,000. US gains control of Northwest Territory.

XYZ affair

An insult to the American delegation when they were supposed to be meeting French foreign minister, Talleyrand, but instead they were sent 3 officials Adams called "X,Y, and Z" that demanded $250,000 as a bribe to see Talleyrand.

impressment of seamen

practice of taking sailors from another country to work for ones navy, especailly done by the british against early american sailors

embargo act 1807

The Embargo Act was a series of laws passed by the Congress of the United States between the years 1806-1808, during the second term of President Thomas Jefferson that forbade American trading ships from leaving the U.S., was meant to force Britain and France to change their policies towards neutral vessels by depriving them of American trade; difficult to enforce because it was opposed by merchants and everyone else whose livelihood depended upon international trade, hurt the national economy, so the Non-Intercourse Act replaced it. It was designed to force Britain to rescind its restrictions on American trade, but failed, and was repealed in early 1809.

President Washington's farewell address

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War of 1812

a war (1812-1814) between the United States and England which was trying to interfere with American trade with France

war hawks

Southerners and Westerners who were eager for war with Britain. They had a strong sense of nationalism, and they wanted to takeover British land in North America and expand.

battle of new orleans

Jackson led a battle that occurred when British troops attacked U.S. soldiers in New Orleans on January 8, 1815; the War of 1812 had officially ended with the signing of the Treaty of Ghent in December, 1814, but word had not yet reached the U.S.

Treaty of Ghent

December 24, 1814 - Ended the War of 1812 and restored the status quo. For the most part, territory captured in the war was returned to the original owner. It also set up a commission to determine the disputed Canada/U.S. border.

jay's treaty

1794- british and us agreed- british trade w/ americans and the british leave northwest territory

pinckney's treaty

agreement between the united states and spain that changed floridas border and made it easier for american ships to use the port of new orleans

missouri compromise

an agreement in 1820 between pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions in the United States concerning the extension of slavery into new territories

the indian removal act of 1830

law allowed the president to make treatie with native americans. they "traded" their lands for new land on the Great Plains

worchester v. georgia

supreme court ruled that georgia law could not be enforced in the cherokee nation

trail of tears

The Cherokee Indians were forced to leave their lands. They traveled from North Carolina and Georgia through Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas-more than 800 miles (1,287 km)-to the Indian Territory. More than 4, 00 Cherokees died of cold, disease, and lack of food during the 116-day journey.

election of 1844

Main debate over Texas. Whigs nominate Henry Clay and democrats nominate James Polk. Polk says he will annex Texas and Oregon to make both sides happy. Polk was elected

texas annexation

1845. Originally refused in 1837, as the U.S. Government believed that the annexation would lead to war with Mexico. Texas remained a sovereign nation. Annexed via a joint resolution through Congress, supported by President-elect Polk, and approved in 1845. Land from the Republic of Texas later bacame parts of NM, CO, OK, KS, and WY.

mexican war

after disputes over Texas lands that were settled by Mexicans the United States declared war on Mexico in 1846 and by treaty in 1848 took Texas and California and Arizona and New Mexico and Nevada and Utah and part of Colorado and paid Mexico $15,000,000

wilmot proviso

Bill that would ban slavery in the territories acquired after the War with Mexico

49ers

People who rushed to california in 1849 for gold.

gold rush

a large migration of people to a newly discovered gold field

gadsden purchase

purchase of land from mexico in 1853 that established the present U.S.-mexico boundary

ralph waldo emerson

United States writer and leading exponent of transcendentalism (1803-1882)

henry david thoreau

American transcendentalist who was against a government that supported slavery. He wrote down his beliefs in Walden. He started the movement of civil-disobedience when he refused to pay the toll-tax to support him Mexican War.

neoclassical architecture

style of architecture in the Federal Period thought to symbolize democracy

washington irving

American writer remembered for the stories "Rip Van Winkle" and "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow," contained in The Sketch Book (1819-1820).

james fenimore cooper

American novelist who is best remembered for his novels of frontier life, such as The Last of the Mohicans (1826).

hudson river school of artists

early american school of painters known for poetic nature paintings of the grandeur for the hudson river

samuel morse

United States portrait painter who patented the telegraph and developed the Morse code (1791-1872)

eli whitney

United States inventor of the mechanical cotton gin (1765-1825)

necessary evil

Thomas Jefferson's position that slavery was wrong but necessary

john deere

inventor of the steel plow

cyrus mccormick

invented the mechanical reaper

robert fulton

American inventor who designed the first commercially successful steamboat and the first steam warship (1765-1815)

erie canal

an artificial waterway connecting the Hudson river at Albany with Lake Erie at Buffalo

know-nothings

nickname of the "American political party" for their ambiguity

john calhoun

First vice president during Jackson's presidency, Staunchly pro-slavery vice-president, engineering the Compromise of 1850 and helping further split the nations

william lloyd garrison

1805-1879. Prominent American abolitionist, journalist and social reformer. Editor of radical abolitionist newspaper "The Liberator", and one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society.

freerick douglass

publicly supported voting rights for african americans the book the "north star"

interchangeable parts

identical components that can be used in place of one another in manufactoring

sectionalism

loyalty to a state or section rather than to the whole country north, south, west

henry clay's american system

developing transportation systems and other internal improvements, establishing a protective tariff and resurrecting the national bank

panic of 1819

Economic panic caused by extensive speculation and a decline of Europena demand for American goods along with mismanagement within the Second Bank of the United States. Often cited as the end of the Era of Good Feelings.

mcculloch v. maryland

attempt by maryland to destory a brach of the bank of the US by imposing a tax on its notes, most famous marshall decison..no national bank, upheld bank rights to exist and be free from taxes

election of 1824

No one won a majority of electoral votes, so the House of Representatives had to decide among Adams, Jackson, and Clay. Clay dropped out and urged his supporters in the House to throw their votes behind Adams. Jackson and his followers were furious and accused Adams and Clay of a "corrupt bargain."

corrupt bargain

In the election of 1824, none of the candidates were able to secure a majority of the electoral vote, thereby putting the outcome in the hands of the House of Representatives, which elected John Quincy Adams over rival Andrew Jackson. Henry Clay was the Speaker of the House at the time, and he convinced Congress to elect Adams. Adams then made Clay his Secretary of State.

spoils system

the system of employing and promoting civil servants who are friends and supporters of the group in power

tariff of abomination

1828, (JQA), south did it on purpose so congress would vote against it, but no, they were wrong, , Tariff with very high rates on goods imported from other countries. Northerners wanted tariff to promote own industry-Southerners had no protection.

south carolina nullification crisis

Attempt by South Carolina not to honor federal tariffs on the grounds that they were unconstitutional

pet banks

State banks where Andrew Jackson placed deposits removed from the federal National Bank.

whig party

Political party formed in 1834 to oppose policies of Andrew Jackson

monroe doctrine

an American foreign policy opposing interference in the Western hemisphere from outside powers

gibbons v. ogden

Regulating interstate commerce is a power reserved to the federal government

dorothea dix

Rights activist on behalf of mentally ill patients - created first wave of US mental asylums

horace mann

United States educator who introduced reforms that significantly altered the system of public education (1796-1859)

elizabeth cady stanton

Co-founded the 1848 Women's Rights Convention held in Seneca Falls, New York

susan b. anthony

social reformer who campaigned for womens rights, the temperance, and was an abolitionist, helped form the National Woman Suffrage Assosiation

utopian communities

Idealistic and impractical communities. Who, Rather than seeking to create an ideal government or reform the world, withdrew from the sinful, corrupt world to work their miracles in microcosm, hoping to imitate the elect state of affairs that existed among the Apostles. ex) brook farm, oneida, new harmony

brook farm

A transcendentalist Utopian experiment, put into practice by transcendentalist former Unitarian minister George Ripley at a farm in West Roxbury, Massachusetts, at that time nine miles from Boston. The community, in operation from 1841 to 1847, was inspired by the socialist concepts of Charles Fourier. Fourierism was the belief that there could be a utopian society where people could share together to have a better lifestyle.

2nd great awakening

Series of religious revivals starting in 1801, based on methodism and baptism, stressed philosophy of salvation through good deeds and tolerance for protestants. Attracted women, African Americans,and Native Americans

underground railroad

abolitionists secret aid to escaping slaves

harriet tubman

United States abolitionist born a slave on a plantation in Maryland and became a famous conductor on the Underground Railroad leading other slaves to freedom in the North (1820-1913)

kansas-nebraska act

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freeport doctrine

Idea authored by Stephen Douglas that claimed slavery could only exist when popular sovereignty said so

free soil party

Formed in 1847 - 1848, dedicated to opposing slavery in newly acquired territories such as Oregon and ceded Mexican territory.

compromise of 1850

Includes California admitted as a free state, the Fugitive Slave Act, Made popular sovereignty in most other states from Mexican- American War

harriet beecher stowe

Author of the antislavery novel Uncle Tom's Cabin

election of 1860

Lincoln, the Republican candidate, won because the Democratic party was split over slavery. As a result, the South no longer felt like it has a voice in politics and a number of states seceded from the Union.

abe lincoln

President during Civil war wrote emancipation Proclamation, freed slaves, etc.

fort sumter

Federal fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina; the confederate attack on the fort marked the start of the Civil War

new orleans

port city for which Jefferson was willing to enter an entangling alliance with his enemy Britain

vicksburg

a town in western Mississippi on bluffs above the Mississippi River west of Jackson

gettysburg

The most violent battle of the American Civil War and is frequently cited as the war's turning point, fought from July 1 - July 3, 1863.

gettysburg address

Speech given by Abraham Lincoln which captured the spirit of liberty and morality ideally held by citizens of a democracy. That ideal was threatened by the Civil War.

anaconda plan

Union war plan by Winfield Scott, called for blockade of southern coast, capture of Richmond, capture Mississippi R, and to take an army through heart of south

blockade

a war measure that isolates some area of importance to the enemy

copperheads

a group of northern Democrats who opposed abolition and sympathized with the South during the Civil War

french indochina

the French colonies of Cambodia and Laos and Vietnam were formerly organized as French Indochina

17th parallel

...

emancipation proclamation

Issued by abraham lincoln on september 22, 1862 it declared that all slaves in the confederate states would be free

13th amendment

This amendment freed all slaves without compensation to the slaveowners. It legally forbade slavery in the United States.

14th amendment

Declares that all persons born in the U.S. are citizens and are guaranteed equal protection of the laws

15th amendment

citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitude

andrew johnson

17th President of the United States, A Southerner form Tennessee, as V.P. when Lincoln was killed, he became president. He opposed radical Republicans who passed Reconstruction Acts over his veto. The first U.S. president to be impeached, he survived the Senate removal by only one vote. He was a very weak president.

black codes

Southern laws designed to restrict the rights of the newly freed black slaves

jim crow laws

Limited rights of blacks. Literacy tests, grandfather clauses and poll taxes limited black voting rights

ku klux klan

founded in the 1860s in the south; meant to control newly freed slaves through threats and violence; other targets: Catholics, Jews, immigrants and others thought to be un-American

sharecroppers

people who rent a plot of land from another person, and farm it in exchange for a share of the crop

tenant farmers

A poor farmer who did not own land and had to live on and work the land of others, either for wages or a share of the crop they produced

thomas nast

Newspaper cartoonist who produced satirical cartoons, he invented "Uncle Sam" and came up with the elephant and the donkey for the political parties. He nearly brought down Boss Tweed. harper's weekly political cartoons

mormons

church founded by Joseph Smith in 1830 with headquarters in Salt Lake City, Utah, religious group that emphasized moderation, saving, hard work, and risk-taking; moved from IL to UT

homestead act of 1862

this allowed a settler to acquire 160 acres by living on it for five years, improving it and paying about $30

morrill land grant act

of 1862, in this act, the federal government had donated public land to the states for the establishment of college; as a result 69 land- grant institutions were established.

sod houses

Houses built with blocks of sod. Typically small and commonly found in the sides of hills because no wooded are to use for housing lumber but great plains still settled

oklahoma land rush

1889; former Indian lands;opened up for settlement by gov, resulting in a race to lay claim for a homestead (Boomers and Sooners)

dawes severalty act

Bill that promised Indians tracts of land to farm in order to assimilate them into white culture. The bill was resisted, uneffective, and disastrous to Indian tribes

battle of wounded knee

US soldiers massacred 300 unarmed Native American in 1890. This ended the Indian Wars. the souix indians

transcontinental railroad

Completed in 1869 at Promontory, Utah, it linked the eastern railroad system with California's railroad system, revolutionizing transportation in the west

assimilation

the social process of absorbing one cultural group into harmony with another

eradication

the complete destruction of every trace of something

the grange

Originally a social organization between farmers, it developed into a political movement for government ownership of railroads

interstate commerce act

Established the ICC (Interstate Commerce Commission) - monitors the business operation of carriers transporting goods and people between states - created to regulate railroad prices

william jennings bryan

United States lawyer and politician who advocated free silver and prosecuted John Scopes (1925) for teaching evolution in a Tennessee high school (1860-1925)

cross of gold speech

An impassioned address by William Jennings Bryan at the 1896 Deomcratic Convention, in which he attacked the "gold bugs" who insisted that U.S. currency be backed only with gold.

munn v illinois

1876; The Supreme Court upheld the Granger laws. The Munn case allowed states to regulate certain businesses within their borders, including railroads, and is commonly regarded as a milestone in the growth of federal government regulation.

wabash v illinois

Supreme court ruling that states could not regulate interstate commerce

barbed wire

strong wire with barbs at regular intervals used to prevent passage

refrigerator car

a freight car that is equipped with refrigeration system, used to transport beef

vertical integration

absorption into a single firm of several firms involved in all aspects of a product's manufacture from raw materials to distribution

horizontal integration

absorption into a single firm of several firms involved in the same level of production and sharing resources at that level

laissez-faire

policy based on the idea that government should play as a role

ellis island

an island in New York Bay that was formerly the principal immigration station for the United States east coast

angel island

Inspection station for immigrants arriving on the West Coast

chinese exclusion act

(1882) Denied any additional Chinese laborers to enter the country while allowing students and merchants to immigrate.

bessemer process

an industrial process for making steel using a Bessemer converter to blast air through through molten iron and thus burning the excess carbon and impurities

elevators

proved valuable as cities came to depend on the construction of taller buildings to accommodate growth in business and populations

electricity

energy made available by the flow of electric charge through a conductor

telephone

Alexander Graham Bell

"new" immigrants vs. "old" immigrants

"New" Immigrants from southern and eastern Europe, alone, unskilled, and poor

"old" immigrants

immigrants who had come to the US before the 1880s from Britain, Germany, Ireland, and Scandenavia, or Northern Europe

frederick olmstead

Landscape Architect who designed many public parks including Central Park in New York.

cultural plurism

An approach to diversity of individuals that calls for understanding and appreciating cultural differences

social darwinism

The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.

rise of labor unions

During the 1800's, labor unions became more and more common. Their leaders sought to achieve the unions' goals through political actions. Their goals included reduction in the length of the workday, universal education, free land for settlers, and abolition of monopolies. Labor unions were the result of the growth of factories

knights of labor

Labor union founded by Uriah S. Stephens in 1869, that grew out of the collapse of the National Labor Union and was replaced by AF of L after a number of botched strikes

haymarket riot

A planned strike by the Knights of Labor results in police confrontation and a bomb

Eugene Debs

Prominent socialist leader (and five time presidential candidate) who founded the American Railroad Union and led the 1894 Pullman Strike

yellow-dog contract

employee forced to sign contract promising not to join union

closed shop

A company with a labor agreement under which union membership can be a condition of employment.

sherman antitrust act

First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting. However, it was initially misused against labor unions

the great strike

of 1877 began on July 14 in Martinsburg, West Virginia, United States and ended some 45 days later after it was put down by local and state militias

pullman strike

in Chicago, Pullman cut wages but refused to lower rents in the "company town", Eugene Debs had American Railway Union refuse to use Pullman cars, Debs thrown in jail after being sued, strike achieved nothing

homestead strike

Strike at Andrew Carnegie's steel plant in which Pinkerton detectives clashed with steel workers

homestead strike

Strike at Andrew Carnegie's steel plant in which Pinkerton detectives clashed with steel workers

sherman anti-trust act

First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting. However, it was initially misused against labor unions

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