Chemistry Cards

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Chapter 9 through 16

eliminate all toxic chemicals

Understanding stoichiometric reactions enables you to:

coefficient for each reactant

In a balanced chemical equation, the molar ratio of two reactants is determined from the:

All uncombined atoms, Molecules, Moles

In a balanced chemical equation, the coefficients represent the relative numbers of:

always equal

In a chemical reaction, the total mass of the products compared to the total mass of the reactants is:

Moles

In using balanced equations to solve mass-mass problems, the mass of each reactant is first converted to:

the molar mass of the substance

The number of moles of a reactant or product is determined by dividing its mass by:

grams to moles to moles to grams

In mass-mass problems, the steps to follow are best summarized as going from:

balancing the equation

The first step in any stoichiometric problem is:

molar ratio of reactants to products

The mass of a reactant or product can be determined by multiplying the number of moles of the substance by the:

used up

The limiting reactant in a completed chemical reaction will be the substance:

left over

The excess reactant in a completed chemical reaction will be the substance:

H2

Which molecule is In Excess in the reaction pictured?

1:1

In the picture, what is the Mole Ratio for hydrogen reacting with chlorine?

produces 2mol PH3

The balanced equation P4 (s) + 6H2 (g) -> 4PH3 (g) tells us that 3moles of H2:

4.0moles

An excess of Al and 6.0 mol of Br2 are reacted according to the equation 2Al + 3Br2 -> 2AlBr3
How many moles of ALBr3 will be formed?

12

When balanced in standard form (smallest whole numbers), the coefficient for CO2 is:

88.2

What mass of O2 is required to react completely with 25g of C6 H14?

76.5

What mass of carbon dioxide can be produced from 25 g of C6 H14?

False

A state function is dependent on the pathway of the process: T or F

True

The SI unit of energy is joule. T or F

False

When energy is used, the quantity decreases while the quality stays the same. T or F

Potential energy

The chemical energy stored in coal is an example of:

In any process, energy is neither created nor destroyed

Which of the following is a statement of the law of conservation of energy?

Potential Energy

The energy possessed by objects because of their position or the arrangement of their particles is called:

The boulder

Which of the objects illustrates potential energy?

limiting reactant

The amount of products formed in a chemical reaction is determined by the amount of the:

complete a mass-mass problem for each reactant

In a balanced chemical equation, how do you determine the limiting reactant?

Expected yield

The amount of product that should be produced based on stoichiometric calculations is the:

Conservation of Mass

Which concept allows you to relate the coefficients of a balanced chemical equation to actual amounts of reactants or products?

Cl is attached to one H and one H is bonded to another

Which drawing shows the products of a reaction between Hydrogen and Chlorine?

Burning of a match

Which of the following is exothermic?

Calorimeter

The device used to determine the heat associated with a chemical reaction is called a:

The specific heat capacity

The quantity of heat required to change the temperature of 1g of a Substance by 1C is:

Decreases, Increases

As a ball rolls down a hill, the potential energy _______ and the kinetic energy _________.

Internal energy

The sum of the kinetic and potential energies of all the...in the system is called the:

The quality of the energy of the universe generally decreases

Which of the following statements are true?

Joules

Heat is typically measured in:

Coal

The fossil fuel ___ was formed from the remains of plants that were buried and exposed to high pressure and heat over time.

J/g Degrees C

Which of the following is a valid unit for specific heat capacity?

Tempature

Which of the following is a measure of the random motions of the components.

Anthracite

The coal with the highest energy available per unit burned is:

negative

When the system does work on the surroundings, the sign of work is

The mass and velocity of the object

Kinetic energy depends on:

entrpoy

The measure of disorder or randomness is termed by:

positive

When heat flows into the system ,the sign of heat is:

Methane

Natural gas consists mostly of:

0.450 J/g C

A 5.1G sample of iron is heated from 36 to 75C. The amount of energy required is 89.5J. The specific heat capacity of this sample of iron is:

The entropy of the universe is always increasing

The 2nd law of thermodynamics tells us that:

The energy of the universe is not constant

The 1st law of thermodynamics states:

heat

The flow of energy due to a temperature difference is called:

The Enthalpy Change

At Constant Pressure, the heat absorbed/realeased during a chemical reaction is equal to:

Hess' Law

What principle relates the enthalpy change for a net reaction to the enthalpy changes of a series of summed reactions?

It changes in sign

What happens to ΔH if a chemical equation is reversed?

W(g) -> X(g) -> Y(g) & 2Y(g) -> Z(g)

Which reactions are exothermic?

W(s) -> W(g) & Z(s) -> Z(g)

Which reactions are endothermic?

4.184 J/g C

What is the specific heat of liquid water?

1 Calorie = 4.184 Joules

Which of the following is the correct relationship between joules and calories?

energy

The capacity to do work is called:

22.4liters

One mole of CO2 at STP will occupy a molar volume of:

directly proportional

If Temperature and Pressure are constant, the volume and number of moles of a gas (Avogadro's Law) are:

????? (chapter 13, question 19)

What volume will 2 mol of N2 occupy at STP?

It would increase

What would happen to the average kinetic energy of the molecules of a gas sample if the Temperature of the sample increased from 20C to 40C?

Pressure is due to the collisions of the gas particles with the walls of the container

Which of these statements are True about kinetic molecular theory?

Solute, Solvent

In a softdrink, CO2 (g) is a _____ and water is the _____.

Unsaturated

What term is used by chemists to quantitatively describe a solution in which a relatively small amount of solute is dissolved?

70g HNO3 & 30g Water

A nitric acid solution that is 70% HNO3 (by mass) contains

Water

Which of the following is a product of all neutralization reactions?

1mole of hydrogen ions

One equivalent of an acid is the amount of acid that will product

blocking the water molecules

Adding solute to a liquid increases the boiling point by:

HCl

Common strong acids include:

Neutralization Reaction

Another name for an acid-base reaction is:

decreases

When temperature is increased, the solubility of a Gas typically:

a mix of several different kinds of gases

Air, the gas we are most familiar with, consists of:

Gases are weightless near the surface of the earth.

Which of the following is NOT a property of gases?

density

The characteristics of gases needed to describe completely include all EXCEPT:

mole

The most useful unit for describing the AMOUNT of a gas is the:

Manometer

An instrument used to measure the pressure exerted by a gas in a CLOSED container is:

0C and 1atm pressure

What are the standard conditions of Temperature and Pressure? (STP)

inversely Proportional

If the amount and Temperature of a gas are kept constant, the pressure and volume (Boyle's Law) of the gas are:

100C (375K)

The normal boiling point of water is:

Intra-molecular forces

The bonds between the hydrogen and oxygen atoms in a water molecule are:

Ice and Water

At 1atm of pressure and 0C temperature, which phase of H2O can exist?

N2

Which of the following should have the lowest boiling point?

London Dispersion, Dipole-Dipole, Hydrogen Bonding, Ionic

Order Intermolecular forces from Weakest to Strongest:

Directly proportional (Chapter 13, question 8)

When a sample of a gas is kept at constant pressure, the volume and ____ (Charles's Law) of the gas are:

Kelvin Scale

The temperature scale that has absolute zero as its zero point is the:

Dalton

The law of partial pressures of gases was formulated by:

The sum of the pressures exerted

In a mix of gases, the total pressure of the mix is equal to:

Temperatures greater than 0C and 1atm or less

The ideal gas law describes the behavior of real gases under:

Kelvin

What temperature scale must be used when working with the Ideal Gas Equation?

Atm-liter/mole-K

R, the gas constant in the ideal gas equation, equals 0.08206. Units?

7.83 atm

The air in the inner tube of the tire of a bike has a pressure of 115psi. Convert to atm:

Boyle's Law

Which of the following laws will give you a graph with an inverted hyperbola?

Aqueous Solutions

solutions with water as the solvent are called:

Moles of solute/liters of solution

Molarity is expressed as:

mass of solvent

To determine the concentration of a solution in moles, you need to know all EXCEPT:

Saturated

A solution that contains as much solute as can possibly be dissolved is:

Polar

Ionic Solids dissolve best in liquid solvents that are:

Its a polar solvent, water is attracted to both anions and cations

Why can water dissolve NaCl, whereas hexane cannot?

grinding the solute into small pieces

The rate at which a SOLID solute can be dissolved in a liquid solvent can be increased by:

Concentration of the solute molecules dissolved

Colligative properties of solutions depend on the:

Solution will conduct electricity

Which of the following is true for ionic solids dissolved in water?

Molecular solid

Name the type of crystalline solid formed by SiO2

Atomic Solid

Name the type of crystalline solid formed by Copper

Ionic Solid

Name the type of crystalline solid formed by potassium bromide

MgF2

Which of the following has the highest melting temperature?

Decreases

As the atmospheric pressure around a liquid decreases, the boiling temperature of the liquid:

Increases

As the Tempature of a liquid increases, the vapor pressure of the liquid generally:

Definite Volume, Tasteless, Ordorless, Colourless

Describe 4 physical properties of water:

hydrogen? (Chapter 14, question 9)

An unually strong Dipole-Dipole force that occurs between Hydrogen and Highly electronegative atoms:

solution

A homogeneous mix in which the components are uniformly mixed:

All; Normality, Molarity, Mass Percent

Which of the following is (are) a unit of concentration?

Solute

In the process of making a dilution, the amount of ___ stays the same.

Evaporation

Escape of vapor molecules with sufficiently high energy from the surface of a liquid:

Steel

An example of an interstitial alloy is:

substitutional

An alloy that has different atoms substituted for the host metal atoms is called:

Is equal to the atmospheric pressure

At the boiling point of a substance, the Vapor Pressure:

molar heat of fusion

The energy required to melt 1mol of a substance is the:

London Dispersion Forces

The weak intermolecular attraction between noble gases:

H2O-Hydrogen Bonding NaCl-Ionic N2-DipoleDipole

Identify the major attractive force in each of the following molecules:

273K (0C, 32F)

The normal freezing point of water is::

H2

The intermolecular forces called Hydrogen Bonding WON'T exist between molecules of:

H2PO4, HPO3 ^2

Which of the following is not a conjugate acid-base pair?

weak conjugate base

The fact that HCL(aq) is a strong acid meanas that Cl is a:

H C2 H3 O2 or CH3 COOH

Which of the following is NOT a strong acid?

[H+] < [OH-]

Which of the following must be TRUE if a solution is to be considered basic?

5.0 x 10^11 M

Calculate the [H] in a solution that has a pOH of 3.7

2.0 x 10^-12 M

Calculate the [H] in a solution that shows a pH of 11.7:

7.4

A solution has [OH]=4.0 x 10^-5 M. The pOH of this solution is:

6.2 x 10^-8

Calculate the [H] in a solution that has a pH of 5.21

7.51

A solution has a pH of 6.49. The pOH of this solution is:

All; Will resist any change in its [H], solution will not change its pH very much, even if a strong base or concentrated acid is added, Any [H] ions added will react with a conjugate base of a weak acid already in solution

Which of the following is TRUE for a buffered solution?

Furnishes hydroxide ions in water solution

In the Arrhenius definition, a base is a substance that:

that donates a proton

Bronsted-Lowry definition, an acid is a substance:

Indicators

Substances that change colour when added to acids/bases are:

Amphoteric

A substance that can act as either an acid or base is:

differ by only a proton

A conjugate acid-base pair consists of two substances that:

dissociate in water

The relative strengths of acids are determined by the extent to which the acid particles:

attraction for protons

The strength of a Bronsted-Lowry base is determined by its:

Strong Acid, Weak Base

Which of the following could be a conjugate acid-base pair?

Carboxylic acids

Which categories contain members with the -COOH group?

Oxyacid

HNO3 is an example of what type of acid?

equivalence point

The point in titration when the pH reaches 7.0 is called the:

Titration curve

The plot of pH against volume of titrant is the:

greater than 7

A solution that is basic in nature has a pH that is:

1.0 x 10^-14

The ion-product constant for water (Kw) is:

O,Zn,Ca,Ba

Rank the following from smallest to largest by atomic size:

F,O,S & S,O,F

Which of the following exhibits the correct orders for both atomic size and ionization energy, respectively?

MgS

Magnesium reacts with sulfer to form:

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