AP European History Chapter 25

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Le Petit Journal

a daily Parisian newspaper published from 1863 to 1944. It was founded by Moïse Polydore Millaud. In its columns were published several serial novels of Émile Gaboriau and of Ponson du Terrail.

Daily Mail

a British, daily middle market tabloid newspaper. First published in 1896 by Lord Northcliffe

Daily Express

a right of centre, British tabloid newspaper. It is a middle-market title

Positivism

August Compte's sociological theory. It stated that the physical sciences had to be understood before the sociological sciences could be understood

Auguste Comte

French philosopher remembered as the founder of positivism. Saw human history as 3 stages: theological, metaphysical and scientific. Founded sociology.

Theological stage

physical nature described in terms of spirits

Metaphysical stage

abstract principles as operative agencies of nature

Positive stage

explantions of nature are exact description of phenomena

Thomas Henry Huxley

opponent of Social Darwinism. Defender of Darwin. physical cosmic process of evolution was at odds with the development of human ethics

Ernst Haeckel

Stated that Medicine damaged Natural Selection, considered concept of selective infanticide, 19th century invention of Eugenics

Charles Darwin

English naturalist. He studied the plants and animals of South America and the Pacific islands, and in his book On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859) set forth his theory of evolution. (p. 715)

Alfred Russel Wallace

a British naturalist, the one who independently proposing a theory of natural selection which prompted Charles Darwin to publish his own more developed and researched theory sooner than he had intended

Natural selection

the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations

Survival of the fittest

process by which individuals that are better suited to their environment survive and reproduce most successfully; also called natural selection

Gregor Mendel

Augustinian monk and botanist whose experiments in breeding garden peas led to his eventual recognition as founder of the science of genetics (1822-1884)

David Friedrich Strauss

wrote Life of Jesus, (not to be confused with Renan's Life of Jesus)which questioned whether the bible provided any genuine historical evidence and said that Jesus was a myth that arose from the particular social and intelectual conditions of early Pakistan

Julius Wellhausen

a German biblical scholar and orientalist, noted particularly for his contribution to scholarly understanding of the origin of the Torah

Ernst Renan

a French philosopher and writer, devoted to his native province of Brittany. He is best known for his influential historical works on early Christianity and his political theories. Wrote Life of Jesus, a different book titled identically to Strauss' work.

William Robertson Smith

was a Scottish orientalist, Old Testament scholar, professor of divinity, and minister of the Free Church of Scotland. He was an editor of the Encyclopædia Britannica and contributor to the Encyclopaedia Biblica. He is also known for his book Religion of the Semites, which is considered a foundational text in the comparative study of religion.

William Paley

a British Christian apologist, philosopher, and utilitarian. He is best known for his exposition of the teleological argument for the existence of God in his work Natural Theology, which made use of the watchmaker analogy

Charles Lyell

effectively discredited the long-standing view that the earth's surface had been formed by short-lived cataclysms, such as biblical floods and earthquakes-his principle: uniformitarianism: same geological processes that are at work today slowly formed the earth's surface over an immensely long time

Friedrich Nietzsche

German philosopher who said that "God is dead," that lackadaisical people killed him with their false values. Said that Christianity and all religion is a "slave morality." He also said that the only hope for mankind was to accept the meaninglessness of human life, and to then use that meaninglessness as a source of personal integrity and liberation. Also stated that from this meaninglessness people called Supermen would exert their mind on other and rise to power. he appealed to people who liked totalitarianism.

Education Act of 1870

established the government's responsibility to run the elementary schools in Britain

Education Act of 1902

this act mandated the government to provide state support for both religious and nonreligious schools in Great Britain

Falloux Law

under this law, local priests provided local education in the public schools. Promulgated by Louis-Napoleon

Jules Ferry

Under the leadership of this person, the moderate republicans of small towns and villages passed a series of laws between 1879 and 1886 establishing free compulsory elementary education for both girls and boys. At the dame time, they greatly expanded the state system of public tax-supported schools. Thus, France shred fully in the general expansion of public education, which served as a critical nation-building tool throughout the Western world in the late nineteenth century.

Ferry Laws

a set of French laws, which established first free education (1881) then mandatory and laic education (1882). Proposed by the (Republican) Minister of Public Instruction Jules Ferry, they were a crucial step in the grounding of the Third Republic

Pierre Waldeck-Rousseau

A French Republican statesman. A liberal politician, he supported the Ferry Laws, compulsory service for seminarists, and the re-establishment of divorce.

Catholic Center Party

Political party of Catholics in Germany; second largest party in Germany. approved Bismarck's policy of centralization and promoted the political concept of Particularism which
advocated regional priorities

May Laws of 1876

These temporary regulations regarding the Jews were proposed by minister of internal affairs Nikolai Ignatyev and enacted on May 15 (May 3 O.S.), 1882, by Tsar Alexander III of Russia. Originally, regulations of May 1882 were intended only as temporary measures until the revision of the laws concerning the Jews, but remained in effect for more than thirty years.

KulturKampf

"battle for civilization", Bismark's policy to make Catholics put loyalty in the state rather than in the Church.

Pope Pius IX

He wrote Syllabus of Errors in which he strongly denounced rationalism, socialism, separation of church and state, and religious liberty, denying that "the Roman pontiff can and ought to reconcile and align himself with progress, liberalism, and modern civilization."

Syllabus of Errors

A document by Pope Pius IX in which he denounced rationalism, socialism, religious liberty, and separation of the church and state.

First Vatican Council

the council called by Pope Pius IX in 1870 similar to the Council of Trent in that it reaffirmed Catholic dogma and papal infallibility. After the council, unltramontanism prevailed, which is essentially the belief in Papal infallibility and jurisdiction over Catholics across the world.

Leo XIII

Pope who established understanding with Bismarck and encouraged French Catholics to accept Third Republic

Rerum Novarum

1891 - Pope Leo XIII's call to the Catholic Church to work to alleviate social problems such as poverty.

Pope Pius X

made important contributions to other aspects of Church teachings, declared that children should receive communion when they understand the meaning of the eucharist

Marie and Pierre Curie

a polish born physicist, and her husband discovered that radium constantly emits subatomic particles, which means it doesn't have a constant weight.

Ernst Mach

Austrian physicist and philosopher who introduced the Mach number and who founded logical positivism (1838-1916)

Henri Poincare

he urged that theories of scientists are constructs of the mind rather than true descriptions

Wilhelm Roentgen

He produced and detected electromagnetic radiation in a wavelength range today known as x-rays or Röntgen rays

Henri Becquerel

A French Scientist whose discovery was radioactivity which occurs when a nucleus has too many or too few neutrons in ratio to its number of protons

J.J. Thompson

Came up with the idea of a subatomic negatively charged particle (electron). Made Plum Pudding model of the atom. Used the Crooks tube, moved light with a magnet, light moved to positive end of magnet

Ernest Rutherford

British physicist (born in New Zealand) who discovered the atomic nucleus and proposed a nuclear model of the atom (1871-1937)

Max Planck

German physicist whose explanation of blackbody radiation in the context of quantized energy emissions initiated quantum theory (1858-1947)

Albert Einstein

This 20th Century scientist revolutionized the way scientists thought about space, time and matter, the most notable being his theory of relativity.

Werner Heisenberg

A German physicist that speculated that there was no real certainty in where an electron was, and only tendencies. This broke down Newton's dependable laws to only probabilities.

Gustave Flaubert

Wrote Madame Bovary-far narrower in scope than Balzac's work but unparalleled in depth and accuracy of psychological insight-tells ordinary story of a frustrated middle class housewife who has an adulterous love affair and is betrayed by her lover-portrays provincial middle class as petty, smug, and hypocritical

Emile Zola

giant of Realism movement in literature, articulated the key themes. Depicted life as it was, everyday life, rejected romantic search for exotic and sublime. wrote about typical and commonplace, focused on middle class and then working class. Zola a determinist, human actjion were casued by unalterable natural laws, heredity and environment determined human behavior.

Henrik Ibsen

Norweigianplaywright, 'father of modern realistic drama'. his work examined the realities that lay behind many facades, possessing a revelatory nature that was disquieting to many contemporaries.Ibsen largely founded the modern stage by introducing a critical eye and free inquiry into the conditions of life and issues of morality. Ibsen's work examined the realities that lay behind many facades, possessing a revelatory nature that was disquieting to many contemporaries.

Modernism

genre of art and literature that makes a self-conscious break with previous genres

Walter Pater

English essayist, who set tone of modernism when he declared that all art, "constantly aspires to the condition of music"

James Abbott McNeill Whistler

an American-born, British-based artist. Averse to sentimentality and moral allusion in painting, he was a leading proponent of the credo "art for art's sake". His famous signature for his paintings was in the shape of a stylized butterfly possessing a long stinger for a tail. The symbol was apt, for it combined both aspects of his personality—his art was characterized by a subtle delicacy, while his public persona was combative

Pablo Picasso

a Spanish artist, founder of Cubism, which focused on geometric shapes and overlapping planes. Painted Guernica.

Cubism

An Artistic movement that focused on geometric shapes, complex lines, and overlapping planes.

New Sculpture

scupltures that left traditional practices and were made out of a mixture of various materials and made into sensuous statues

Bloomsbury Group

an inner circle of writers and artists and philosophers who lived in or around Bloomsbury early in the 20th century and were noted for their unconventional lifestyles

Vanessa Bell

Member of the Bloomsbury group, painter, sister to Virginia Woolf.

Duncan Grant

a Scottish painter and member of the Bloomsbury Group.

John Maynard Keynes

Young English economist who denounced Treaty of Versailles and said that people needed to revise treaty and help German econ. He Wrote Economic Consequences of the Peace. Said Britain needed Germany, and if the German market went under, Britain econ would go under. His book was one of the major reasons that the British were sympathetic towards Germany.

Lytton Strachey

Member of the unconventional and innovative Bloomsbury group; an openly homosexual man that was friends with Virginia Woolf until his death in 1932. This British author incorporated psychological insight into his literary works, something developed on by fellow Bloomsbury group member Virginia Woolf with her "stream of consciousness" writing

Virginia Woolf

English author whose work used such techniques as stream of consciousness and the interior monologue

Leonard Woolf

Virginia Woolf's husband, a jewish man she wasn't really in love with who she only married after the death of her brother Thoby

Marcel Proust

20th century French author; wrote semi-autobiographical Remembrance of things Past, which recalls bittersweet memories of childhood and youthful love and tries to discover their innermost meaning; lived like a hermit in a soundproof apartment for ten years, withdrawing form the present to live in the past.

Thomas Mann

(June 6, 1875 - August 12, 1955) was a German novelist, social critic, philanthropist, essayist, and 1929 Nobel Prize laureate, known for his series of highly symbolic and often ironic epic novels and mid-length stories, noted for their insight into the psychology of the artist and intellectual. His analysis and critique of the European and German soul use modernized German and Biblical stories, as well as the ideas of Goethe, Nietzsche, and Schopenhauer.

James Joyce

influential Irish writer noted for his many innovations (such as stream of consciousness writing) (1882-1941)

Sigmund Freud

austrian physician whose work focused on the unconscious causes of behavior and personality formation; founded psychoanalysis

Josef Breuer

Physician who became Freud's close friend and coauthored Studies on Hysteria. He was the first to use the "talking cure" while treating hysteria, which later evolved into Freud's technique of free association.

Studies in Hysteria

a book published in 1895 by Sigmund Freud and Josef Breuer. It contained a number of Breuer and Freud's case studies of "hysterics". It included one of their most famous cases, Breuer's Anna O. (real name: Bertha Pappenheim), which introduced the technique of psychoanalysis as a form of cure.

The Interpretation of Dreams

a book by Sigmund Freud presented the theory of dream analysis which was considered to be the royal road to the unconsciousness

Id

(psychoanalysis) primitive instincts and energies underlying all psychic activity

Ego

(psychoanalysis) the conscious mind

Superego

(psychoanalysis) that part of the unconscious mind that acts as a conscience

Carl Jung

1875-1961; Field: neo-Freudian, analytic psychology; Contributions: people had conscious and unconscious awareness; archetypes; collective unconscious; libido is all types of energy, not just sexual; Studies: dream studies/interpretation

Max Weber

German sociologist that regarded the development of rational social orders as humanity's greatest achievement. Saw bureaucratization (the process whereby labor is divided into an organized community and individuals acquire a sense of personal identity by finding roles for themselves in large systems) as the driving force in modern society.

Aryans

Germanic people seen as the master race

Count Arthur de Gobineau

This man said that the aryan race is lost and that the most pure race is degenerating but can be prolonged by proper mating

Houston Stewart Chamberlain

This man was the writer of The Foundations of the Ninteenth Century and believed in Aryan Superiority.

Zionism

A worldwide movement, originating in the 19th century that sought to establish and develop a Jewish nation in Palestine. Since 1948, its function has been to support the state of Israel.

Theodor Herzl

German Jewish Politician who advocated the policy of Zionism and the creation of a nation state for all Jewish people.

Dreyfus Affair

A Jewish captain was falsely accused and convicted of comitting treason, really done by Catholic. Family and leading intellectual individuals and republicans like Zola wanted to reopen the case. Split in two, first army who are antisemitic and Catholic, and other side the civil libertarians and more radical republicans. Result is government severed all ties with church, no longer priests in state schools, Catholicism loses a lot of power of indoctrination.

Contagious Diseases Act

this act subjected women suspected of prostitution to medical examinations for venereal disease

Josephine Butler

(1828-1906) English reformer who challenged the Contagious Diseases Acts in order to protect the livelihood and rights of women.

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