Acellular vaccines and subunit vaccines
contain select antigenic components of a pathogen rather than whole cells or viruses
African sleeping sickness is caused by
Agricultural workers and field archaeologists are exposed to this organism which although entering via the respiratory tract can cause meningitis
All nucleated cells contain
Class I MHC
All of the following are associated with IgE and mast cell mediated allergy EXCEPT
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
All of the following are involved in Type 2 hypersensitivity EXCEPT
All of the following pertain to poliomyelitis EXCEPT
Summer outbreaks in the US have been recently increasing
All pertain to Neisseria Meningitidis EXCEPT
common cause of bacterial pneumonia
Allergic patients receiving small controlled injections of specific allergens are undergoing
Allergic reaxs to PCNs are considered a ______ hypersensitivity.
Allergies run in families because
relative production of IgE is inherited
Although many viruses can cause meningitis, the most common viral cause is
confer passive immuity
Arthrospores of Coccidioides immitis develop into _______ that will release endospores into the lungs
Artificial Active immunity
chickenpox vaccine triggers extended immunity to chickenpox
Artificial Passive Immunity
giving a person immune serum globulins to chickenpox virus after exposure to disease
Atopy and anaphylaxis are hypersensitivities in the category
Autoantibodies cause tissue injury in all diseases EXCEPT
Autoimmunity is typically due to
Autoantibodies and T cells
The best defense against arboviruses is
Caused by haemophilus influenzae
The chemical mediator that causes prolonged bronchospasm, vascular permeability and mucus secretion of asthmatic patients is
The concept "immunologically privileged" explains why the CNS
has a REDUCED immune response compared to the rest of the body
Inhibit the activity of lymphocytes
Cryptococcus neoformans is a
CSF is found in
cytotoxic T cells
secrete granzymes & perforins that damage TARGET cells
The DiGeorge syndrome is the result of
Congenital absence or immaturity of the thymus gland
During which response to the antigen do we display a LATENT period of no secretory antibody synthesis?
Each of the following are true for Toxoplasma gondii EXCEPT
has a narrow host range
Each of the following can result in acquired immune deficiencies EXCEPT
Each of the following is an autoimmune disease EXCEPT
Each of the following is true for Listeria monocytogenes EXCEPT
Edward Jenner's work involved
Immunization using a related, less pathogenic organism to give protection against a more pathogenic one
Encephalitis caused by arboviruses involves
Coma, convulsions, paralysis in severe cases
Encephalitis is most commonly caused by a
A female who is Rh-
is at risk for a pregnancy resulting in hemolytic disease of the newborn
The foodborne disease that involves neurotoxin is
Human blood types involve all except
In multiple sclerosis, autoantibodes attack
Myelin sheath cells of nervous system
In paralytic polio, what structures are damaged?
Anterior horn cells
In the theory for allergic desensitization, which immunoglobulin blocks the allergen from binding with IgE?
Incorrect about Rabies
Average incubation in humans is 1 week
The initial encounter with an allergen is called the
Killer or inactivated vaccines are prepared by
Tx with Formalin, heat or radiation
Major categories of hypersensitivities involve a B cell immunoglobulin are
Type I, II, III
Meningococci initially colonize the
hay fever--type IV hypersensitivity
Natural Active immunity
chickenpox infex is followed by LIFELONG immunity
Natural Passive Immunity
A fetus acquiring maternal IgG to the chickenpox virus across placenta
Neisseria meningitidis is transmitted by
Neonatal meningitis is most commonly transmitted by
Exposure in birth canal
The normal biota of the CNS
the CNS has NO normal biota
NOT a causative agent of acute encephalitis
NOT a possible symptom of Type I hypersensitivity?
NOT a prion disease
subacute sclerosing panencephalitis
NOT a target for Tc cells
NOT true of meningoencephaitis
causative organisms are viruses
NOT true of Streptococcus pneumoniae
Responds well to PCN
NOT true of Type 3 hypersensitivity
involves production of IgG and IgE antibodies
Once a mother has been sensitized to the Rh factor
All other Rh+ fetuses are at risk
order from Skull to Brain (outer to inner) *DASP*
The organism found in powdered baby formula which can cause meningitis is:
E coli K1
The organism responsible for the majority of neonatal meningitis is
Patients with Creutzfeldt Jacob disease live
Less than one year post diagnosis
Polio virus initially multiplies in the
The potential for hemolytic disease of the newborn occurs when
Fetal Rh+ cells enter an Rh- mother
The preferred preventative measure for polio in US is
Inactive vaccine developed by Jonas Salk
Production of a neurotoxin that binds to target sites on spinal cord neurons responsible for inhibiting skeletal muscle contraction is a characteristic of
Production of a neurotoxin that prevents acetylcholine release from motor neurons at neuromuscular junctions is a characteristic of
Prophylactic Rifampin is indicated for individuals in close contact with patients infected by
A second encounter with an allergen that causes a response is called the
The serum of a person with blood type A, RH- will have which of the following
Severe combined immunodeficiencies (SCIDs) are due to
a genetic defect in the development of both T cells and B cells
Subacute encephalitis may be caused by
Herpes Simplex Virus
Tetanus differs from botulism in that
Muscles cannot relax in tetanus, muscles cannot contract in botulism
Toxoplasmosis prevention includes
Tx for Neisseria meningitidis
Pen G intravenously
Vaccinia virus is often used in the technique to make
The vector involved in African sleeping sickness is the
The virulence of Haemophilus influenzae serotype b is associated with its
What can be a consequence of a genetic deficiency in B cell survival and maturity?
What could result when grafted tissue such as bone marrow contains passenger lymphocytes?
Graft versus Host disease
What involves determination of donor HLA antigens compared to those of the recipient's tissue?
Both skin graft & Organ Transplantation
What is the likelihood of a pt infected by West Nile Virus developing West Nile encephalitis?
Less than 1%
What will be the immediate action of an allergen when it enters that body for a second time?
Bonding of allergen to adjacent IgE binding sites on mast cells and basophils
When antibody is COVERING the foreign microorganism then COMPLEMENT may be activated via this ____ pathway.
Which event is the process of releasing chemical mediators?
Which event occurs with the sensitizing dose of allergen?
Binding of IgE by the Fc region to mast cells and basophils
Which of the following have the highest mortality rate?
Eastern Equine encephalitis
Which of the following pertains to both tetanus and foodborne botulism?
Tx involves antitoxin therapy
Which organism is a common cause of meningitis in AIDS pts and can be found in bird droppings?
Which organism is the main reservoir and host for Toxoplasma gondii
Which type of Neuroglia has phagocytic capabilities in the CNS?
Which types of hypersensitivities is IgG involved with?
Both antibody mediated & immune complex mediated