Micro chp 15, 16, 19

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Acellular vaccines and subunit vaccines

contain select antigenic components of a pathogen rather than whole cells or viruses

African sleeping sickness is caused by

trypanosoma brucei

Agricultural workers and field archaeologists are exposed to this organism which although entering via the respiratory tract can cause meningitis

Coccidioides immitis

All nucleated cells contain

Class I MHC

All of the following are associated with IgE and mast cell mediated allergy EXCEPT

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

All of the following are involved in Type 2 hypersensitivity EXCEPT

IgE

All of the following pertain to poliomyelitis EXCEPT

Summer outbreaks in the US have been recently increasing

All pertain to Neisseria Meningitidis EXCEPT

common cause of bacterial pneumonia

Allergic patients receiving small controlled injections of specific allergens are undergoing

Desensitization

Allergic reaxs to PCNs are considered a ______ hypersensitivity.

Immediate

Allergies run in families because

relative production of IgE is inherited

Although many viruses can cause meningitis, the most common viral cause is

Enterovirus

Antitoxins

confer passive immuity

Arthrospores of Coccidioides immitis develop into _______ that will release endospores into the lungs

Spherules

Artificial Active immunity

chickenpox vaccine triggers extended immunity to chickenpox

Artificial Passive Immunity

giving a person immune serum globulins to chickenpox virus after exposure to disease

Atopy and anaphylaxis are hypersensitivities in the category

Type I

Autoantibodies cause tissue injury in all diseases EXCEPT

Tuberculin reaction

Autoimmunity is typically due to

Autoantibodies and T cells

The best defense against arboviruses is

vector control

Caused by haemophilus influenzae

Bacterial meningitis

The chemical mediator that causes prolonged bronchospasm, vascular permeability and mucus secretion of asthmatic patients is

Leukotriene

The concept "immunologically privileged" explains why the CNS

has a REDUCED immune response compared to the rest of the body

Corticosteroids will

Inhibit the activity of lymphocytes

Cryptococcus neoformans is a

Fungus

CSF is found in

subarachnoid space

cytotoxic T cells

secrete granzymes & perforins that damage TARGET cells

The DiGeorge syndrome is the result of

Congenital absence or immaturity of the thymus gland

During which response to the antigen do we display a LATENT period of no secretory antibody synthesis?

primary

Each of the following are true for Toxoplasma gondii EXCEPT

has a narrow host range

Each of the following can result in acquired immune deficiencies EXCEPT

Bacterial infex

Each of the following is an autoimmune disease EXCEPT

Metastatic cancer

Each of the following is true for Listeria monocytogenes EXCEPT

Fastidious

Edward Jenner's work involved

Immunization using a related, less pathogenic organism to give protection against a more pathogenic one

Encephalitis caused by arboviruses involves

Coma, convulsions, paralysis in severe cases

Encephalitis is most commonly caused by a

Virus

A female who is Rh-

is at risk for a pregnancy resulting in hemolytic disease of the newborn

The foodborne disease that involves neurotoxin is

Botulism

Human blood types involve all except

MHC genes

In multiple sclerosis, autoantibodes attack

Myelin sheath cells of nervous system

In paralytic polio, what structures are damaged?

Anterior horn cells

In the theory for allergic desensitization, which immunoglobulin blocks the allergen from binding with IgE?

IgG

Incorrect about Rabies

Average incubation in humans is 1 week

The initial encounter with an allergen is called the

Sensitizing dose

Killer or inactivated vaccines are prepared by

Tx with Formalin, heat or radiation

Major categories of hypersensitivities involve a B cell immunoglobulin are

Type I, II, III

Meningococci initially colonize the

Nasopharynx

mismatched

hay fever--type IV hypersensitivity

Natural Active immunity

chickenpox infex is followed by LIFELONG immunity

Natural Passive Immunity

A fetus acquiring maternal IgG to the chickenpox virus across placenta

Neisseria meningitidis is transmitted by

Close contact

Neonatal meningitis is most commonly transmitted by

Exposure in birth canal

The normal biota of the CNS

the CNS has NO normal biota

NOT a causative agent of acute encephalitis

Toxoplasma gondii

NOT a possible symptom of Type I hypersensitivity?

contact dermatitis

NOT a prion disease

subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

NOT a target for Tc cells

Bacteria

NOT true of meningoencephaitis

causative organisms are viruses

NOT true of Streptococcus pneumoniae

Responds well to PCN

NOT true of Type 3 hypersensitivity

involves production of IgG and IgE antibodies

Once a mother has been sensitized to the Rh factor

All other Rh+ fetuses are at risk

order from Skull to Brain (outer to inner) *DASP*

Dura mater
arachnoid mater
subarachnoid space
pia mater

The organism found in powdered baby formula which can cause meningitis is:

E coli K1

The organism responsible for the majority of neonatal meningitis is

Streptococcus agalactiae

Patients with Creutzfeldt Jacob disease live

Less than one year post diagnosis

Polio virus initially multiplies in the

Tonsils

The potential for hemolytic disease of the newborn occurs when

Fetal Rh+ cells enter an Rh- mother

The preferred preventative measure for polio in US is

Inactive vaccine developed by Jonas Salk

Production of a neurotoxin that binds to target sites on spinal cord neurons responsible for inhibiting skeletal muscle contraction is a characteristic of

Clostridium tetani

Production of a neurotoxin that prevents acetylcholine release from motor neurons at neuromuscular junctions is a characteristic of

Clostridium botolinum

Prophylactic Rifampin is indicated for individuals in close contact with patients infected by

Haemophilus influenzae

A second encounter with an allergen that causes a response is called the

Provocative dose

The serum of a person with blood type A, RH- will have which of the following

anti B
anti Rh

Severe combined immunodeficiencies (SCIDs) are due to

a genetic defect in the development of both T cells and B cells

Subacute encephalitis may be caused by

Herpes Simplex Virus

Tetanus differs from botulism in that

Muscles cannot relax in tetanus, muscles cannot contract in botulism

Toxoplasmosis prevention includes

hygienic precautions

Tx for Neisseria meningitidis

Pen G intravenously

Vaccinia virus is often used in the technique to make

Trojan horse

The vector involved in African sleeping sickness is the

Tsetse fly

The virulence of Haemophilus influenzae serotype b is associated with its

Capsule

What can be a consequence of a genetic deficiency in B cell survival and maturity?

Hypogammaglobulinemia

What could result when grafted tissue such as bone marrow contains passenger lymphocytes?

Graft versus Host disease

What involves determination of donor HLA antigens compared to those of the recipient's tissue?

Both skin graft & Organ Transplantation

What is the likelihood of a pt infected by West Nile Virus developing West Nile encephalitis?

Less than 1%

What will be the immediate action of an allergen when it enters that body for a second time?

Bonding of allergen to adjacent IgE binding sites on mast cells and basophils

When antibody is COVERING the foreign microorganism then COMPLEMENT may be activated via this ____ pathway.

Classical

Which event is the process of releasing chemical mediators?

Degranulation

Which event occurs with the sensitizing dose of allergen?

Binding of IgE by the Fc region to mast cells and basophils

Which of the following have the highest mortality rate?

Eastern Equine encephalitis

Which of the following pertains to both tetanus and foodborne botulism?

Tx involves antitoxin therapy

Which organism is a common cause of meningitis in AIDS pts and can be found in bird droppings?

Cryptococcus neoforans

Which organism is the main reservoir and host for Toxoplasma gondii

Cat

Which type of Neuroglia has phagocytic capabilities in the CNS?

Microglial cells

Which types of hypersensitivities is IgG involved with?

Both antibody mediated & immune complex mediated

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