Pathophysiology Homework - Digestive

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Digestive System Patho HW

Which of the following cells in the gastric mucosa produce intrinsic factor and hydrochloric acid?

Parietal cells

Which of the following is the primary site for absorption of nutrients?

Ileum

When highly acidic chyme enters the duodenum, which hormone stimulates the release of pancreatic secretions that contains very high bicarbonate ion content?

secretin

Which of the following breaks protein down into peptides?

peptidase

In which structure is oxygenated blood (arterial) mixed with unoxygenated blood (venous) so as to support the functions of the structure?

liver

Which of the following stimulates increased peristalsis and secretions in the digestive tract?

Vagus nerve

Which of the following is contained in pancreatic exocrine secretions?

Bicarbonate ion

An alkaline environment is required in the duodenum to:

activate intestinal and pancreatic enzymes

What does the term gluconeogenesis refer to?

Formation of glucose through protein and fat

Normally, proteins or amino acids are required to produce all of the following EXCEPT:

cellular energy

Which of the following statements applies to bile salts?

They emulsify lipids and lipid-soluble vitamins

The visceral peritoneum:

forms the outer covering of the stomach and intestines

The early stage of vomiting causes:

metabolic alkalosis

Prolonged vomiting cause a state of acidosis due to:

catabolism of proteins and lipids

What is the first change in arterial blood gases with diarrhea?

Decreased bicarbonate ion

Which of the following applies to the act of swallowing?

Requires coordination of cranial nerves five, nine, ten and twelve

What does the defecation reflex require?

Coordination through the sacral spinal cord

What is the definition of achalasia?

Lack of a nerve plexus to relax the lower esophageal sphincter

What does esophageal atresia cause?

No fluid or food entering the stomach

Which of the following applies to cleft palate?

The hard and soft palates do not fuse during the first trimester of pregnancy

Oral candidiasis is considered to:

be an opportunistic fungal infection of the mouth

What is/are common location(s) for oral cancer?

Increased intra-abdominal pressure

What is a common cause of hiatal hernia?

Increased intra-abdominal pressure

What does the pathophysiology of chronic gastritis include?

Atrophy of the gastric mucosa with decreased secretions

What is a common cause of gastroenteritis due to Salmonella?

Raw or undercooked poultry or eggs

Which of the following individuals is likely to develop acute gastritis?

An individual with allergy to shellfish

What does congenital pyloric stenosis involve?

Hypertrophy and hyperplasia of smooth muscle in the pylorus

A patient with acquired pyloric stenosis would likely:

vomit undigested food from previous meals

Prolonged or severe stress predisposes to peptic ulcer disease because:

of reduced blood flow

The pathophysiology of peptic ulcer disease may involve any of the following EXCEPT:

Increased stimulation of mucous-producing glands

What is frequently the first manifestation of stress ulcers?

Hematemesis and hypotension

What would be the result of chronic bleeding from gastric carcinoma?

Occult blood in the stool and anemia

Following gastric resection, the onset of nausea, cramps, and dizziness immediately after meals indicates:

a large volume of chime has entered the intestines, causing distention

Which of the following is/are (a) manifestation(s) of hemolytic jaundice?

Increased unconjugated bilirubin in the blood

Why does mild hyperbilirubinemia occur in newborns?

The immature liver cannot process bilirubin quickly enough

Predisposing factors to cholelithiasis include excessive:

bilirubin or cholesterol concentration in the bile

What is the major effect when a gallstone obstructs the cystic duct?

Severe colicky pain in upper right quadrant

Which of the following describes the supply of bile following a cholecystectomy?

Small amounts of bile are continuously secreted and flow into the duodenum.

Which of the following applies to hepatitis A infection?

It is transmitted by the fecal-oral route

What can be concluded if the hepatitis B antigen level remains high in the serum?

Chronic infection has developed

What is the most common type of hepatitis transmitted by blood transfusion?

HCV

What causes elevated serum levels of AST and ALT during the preicteric stage of hepatitis?

Necrosis of liver cells

What is the likely effect of long-term exposure to a hepatotoxin?

Gradual irreversible damage to the liver and cirrhosis

What indicates the presence of third-stage alcohol hepatitis?

Accumulation of fat in the hepatocytes and hepatomegaly

A primary factor causing encephalopathy with cirrhosis is the elevated:

serum ammonia

In patients with cirrhosis, serum ammonia may increase when:

bleeding occurs in the digestive tract

What is the primary cause of esophageal varices?

Portal hypertension

What is the primary cause of increased bleeding tendencies associated with cirrhosis?

Deficit in vitamin k and prothrombin

Which factors contribute to ascites in patients with cirrhosis?

Increased aldosterone and deficit of albumin

Which of the following is a major cause of primary hepatocellular cancer?

Long-term exposure to certain chemicals

What causes massive inflammation and necrosis in acute pancreatitis?

Activation and spread of proteolytic enzymes

How does chemical peritonitis and shock frequently result from acute pancreatitis?

Inflammation and increased vascular permeability of the peritoneum affect fluid balance

Malnutrition may develop in children with celiac disease because of:

damage to the intestinal villi

Which of the following best describes steatorrhea?

Bulky, fatty, foul-smelling stools

What is the dietary requirement for a child with celiac disease?

Gluten-free

What are the typical changes occurring with Crohn's disease?

Inflamed areas of the wall of the ileum alternating with thick fibrotic or normal areas

Stools that are more liquid and contain mucus, frank blood, and pus are typical of:

ulcerative colitis

How may a fistula form with Crohn's disease?

recurrent inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis forming a connection between intestinal loops

How does iron-deficiency anemia frequently develop with ulcerative colitis?

Chronic blood loss in stool

What is the cause of inflammatory bowel disease?

idiopathic

What pain is typical of diverticulitis?

Lower left quadrant. Llq.

With acute appendicitis, localized pain and tenderness in the lower right quadrant results from:

local inflammation of the parietal peritoneum

How does localized peritonitis develop from acute appendicitis before rupture?

Intestinal bacteria escape through the necrotic appendiceal wall.

What is a typical early sign of cancer in the ascending colon?

Occult blood in the stool

To which site does colon cancer usually first metastasize?

liver

How does a volvulus cause localized gangrene in the intestine?

The mesenteric arteries are compressed in the twisted section of intestine

Which of the following is a typical indicator of an intestinal obstruction caused by paralytic ileus?

Severe steady abdominal pain

Partial obstruction of the sigmoid colon resulting from diverticular disease would likely:

result in a small, hard stool

What causes hypovolemic shock to develop with intestinal obstruction?

Continued vomiting and fluid shift into the intestine

What causes the characteristic rigid abdomen found in the patient with peritonitis?

Inflamed peritoneum resulting in reflex abdominal muscle spasm

What would be the likely outcome from chemical peritonitis related to a perforated gall bladder?

Leakage of intestinal bacteria into the blood and the peritoneal cavity.

How does pelvic inflammatory disease frequently lead to bacterial peritonitis?

Infection spreads through the fallopian tubes directly into the peritoneal cavity

Choose the significant change in arterial blood gases expected with prolonged severe vomiting:

decreased bicarbonate ion, decreased PCO2, serum pH 7.35

When dehydration reduces the compensation possible for acidosis resulting from prolonged diarrhea, what significant change in arterial blood gases indicates this?

Serum bicarbonate levels would decrease, serum pH would drop below 7.35

How do body defenses respond immediately after the gall bladder ruptures?

Blood clots seal the perforation

Which of the following is the most frequent location of peptic ulcers?

Proximal duodenum

In peptic ulcer disease, which of the following does NOT decrease the resistance of the mucosal barrier?

Decreased vagal stimulation

An individual with peptic ulcer disease exhibits hematemesis. What does this probably indicate?

Erosion of a large blood vessel

What does the term melena mean?

Blood in a dark-colored stool

Which of the following is NOT a common predisposing factor to gastric carcinoma?

Anti-inflammatory medications such as ASA

Which of the following frequently occurs 2-3 hours after meals in post-gastrectomy patients?

hypoglycemia

Which term refers to obstruction of the biliary tract by gallstones?

choledocholithiasis

Which of the following is NOT usually present during the icteric stage of viral hepatitis?

Esophageal varicies

Which of the following statements about jaundice is/are true?

Four only. Jaundice usually develops with hepatocellular carcinoma.

Which type(s) of hepatitis increase(s) the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma?

HBV and HCV

Which of the following are related to post-hepatic jaundice?

pruritic skin and light-colored stools

Which of the following occurs with hepatitis B?

the liver is inflamed and enlarged

Identify a major reason making it difficult to prevent the spread of hepatitis B.

infection is often asymptomatic

What is the initial pathological change in alcoholic liver disease?

Accumulation of fat in hepatocytes with hepatomegaly

How does serum bilirubin change with cirrhosis?

Increased conjugated and unconjugated bilirubin

Which type of hepatitis virus requires the presence of hepatitis B virus so as to replicate?

HDV

Deficiencies of vitamins A, D, and K occur in patients with cirrhosis primarily because of decreased?

Production of bile for absorption

Tetany may develop in patients with acute pancreatitis because:

calcium ions bind with fatty acids in necrotic tissue

In which condition is a deficit of protein and vitamins most likely to occur?

Regional ileitis

When a portion of the proximal stomach and the paraesophageal junction move above the diaphragm, this is called a:

sliding hernia

Which of the following applies to gastric cancer?

Most cases involve an adenocarcinoma of the mucous glands

Pancreatic cancer may be diagnosed early if obstruction of bile or pancreatic secretions develops when the tumor is located:

at the head of the pancreas

"A gluten-free diet as required" for the client with celiac disease means avoiding:

certain grains

The telescoping of one section of bowel inside another section is called:

intussusceptions

Hirschsprung's disease refers to:

congenital lack of PNS innervations in a segment of the colon

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