respiration and excretory systems

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Prentice Hall Science Explorer Human Biology and Health Chapter 4

respiration

The process by which cells break down simple food molecules to release the energy they contain.

cilia

tiny hairlike extensions that move together in a sweeping motion

pharynx

the throat; part of both the respiratory and digestive systems

trachea

The windpipe; a passage through which air moves in the respiratory system.

bronchi

the passages that direct air into the lungs

lungs

main organs of the respiratory system

alveoli

tiny sacs of lung tissue specialized for the movement of gases between air and blood

diaphragm

Large dome shaped muscle that helps with breathing

larynx

the voice box, located in the top part of the trachea, underneath the epiglottis

vocal cords

Folds of connective tissue that stretch across the opening of the larynx and produce a person's voice

tar

a thick, sticky, dark fluid produced when tobacco burns

carbon monoxide

A colorless, odorless, poisonous gas in cigarette smoke that passes through the lungs into the blood

nicotine

the addictive drug found in tobacco that speeds the heartbeat, raises blood pressure, and causes dizziness and upset stomach

addiction

a physical dependence on a substance

bronchitis

An irritation of the breathing passages in which the small passages become narrower than normal and may be clogged with mucus.

emphysema

A serious disease that destroys lung tissue and causes breathing difficulties.

lung cancer

a lung disease in which cells in the lungs grow out of control

excretion

the process by which wastes are removed from the body

urea

a chemical that comes from the breakdown of proteins

kidney

a major organ of the excretory system that eliminates urea, excess water, and other materials from the body.

urine

a fluid produced by the kidneys that contains water, urea and other waste materials

ureter

tube that carries urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder

urinary bladder

a sack-like muscular organ that stores urine until it is eliminated from the body.

urethra

tube leading from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body

nephron

Small filtering structure found in the kidneys that removes wastes from blood and produces urine

atherosclerosis

buildup of fatty substances within the walls of arteries

passive smoking

when people involuntarily inhale the smoke from other people's cigarettes

homeostasis

the ability of a living thing to keep conditions inside its body constant

organs that excrete

kidneys, lung, skin, and liver

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