Biology 115 (chapter 21)

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Julie Bright second semester final; chapter 21

Which of the following is the name of the fluid in an insect's open circulatory syatem?

Hemolymph

How can flatworms, simple animals with a flat body shape, survive without a circulatory system?

In flatworms, all cells are located near central body branches or near the body surface, so diffusion alone can transport important nutrients.

Fishes have:

A two-chanbered heart

Blood pressure tends to fall with increasing distance from the heart. On the bias of the information, which of the following lists the types of blood vessel, in order, from highest blood pressure to lowest?

Arteries, Capallaries, Veins

The heartbeat in a vertabrate:

Is initiated by modified muscle tissue, the sinoatrial (SA) node, that contracts without nerve stilulation.

Both red blood cells and white blood cells are derived from cells in:

The bone marrow

Which of the following components of human blood is a cell fragment?

Platelet

How are the blood-curculation system and the lymbic system related to each other?

Blood carries nutrients and oxygen to cells and removes their watse. The lymphatic system removes bacteria and debris from the blood.

The polygraph, or 'lie detector' test, functions by monitoring all of the following except:

Changes in oxygen content of the blood

Why do most fishes swim with their mouths open?

They do this to ventilate their gills.

Carbon dioxide transport differs from oxygen transport in the circulatory systems of mammals, because:

CO2 is transported mostly in the plasma, while O2 is transported mostly in the red blood cells.

Breathing in birds is more like 'breathing' in fishes than in mammals because:

Oxygen never runs into a dead end.

Which of the following are the main muscles used in breathing?

Intercostal muscles and diaphragm.

With increasing temperatures:

Aquatic animals must exert more energy to obtain oxygen.

Under regular metabolic conditions, what percentage of oxygen is released from the blood to the tissues?

25%

Why is carbon monoxide (CO) so dangerous?

CO prevents hemoglobin from binding to and transporting O2 to the body tissues, resulting in oxygen starvation and death.

Myoglobin:

Releases O2 to the muscles when partial pressure is such that hemoglobin cannot do so.

Which of the following has the highest binding affinity for oxygen?

Myoglobin

Why does llama hemoglobin have a higher oxygen-binding affinity than human hemoglobin?

Llamas live at higher elevations than most humans and require a means to bind O2 when oxygen is at a lower concentration in the air.

Diphosphoglyceric acid (DPG):

Causes the realse of more O2 to body tissues.

Which of the following is not part of the 'diving reflex' of the Weddell seal, allowing it to remain underwater for long periods of time?

Weddell seal have an increased resting heart rate, causing more efficient oxygen usage.

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