Human Systems

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nervous system

the system that transfers messages, manages information, & controls the body

brain

part of the central nervous system that manages messages, information, & functions

cerebrum

part of the brain that controls higher level intelligence such as memory, intelligence, emotion, speech; senses; and voluntary movement

cerebellum

part of the brain that controls motor control

spinal cord

transfers commands from brain to body

brain stem

part of the brain that controls messages & automatic processes such as breathing, blinking, swallowing, digesting, heart rate, & blood pressure

thalamus

part of the brain that carries messages from sensory organs

hypothalamus

part of the brain that controls processes in the body that happen automatically such as hunger, thirst, hormones...

neuron

a cell of the nervous system that sends signals from the brain to the body & vice-versa

neuron

a cell of the nervous system stuck in the g0 phase

axon

part of the neuron that sends signals away from the cell body

dendrites

parts of the neuron that recieve signals from other neurons or the environment

myelin sheath

the insulating membrane around the axon that keeps electrical signals moving

synapse

gap or space between two neurons where impulses travel from one cell to another

neurotransmitters

chemicals released by neurons that cross the synapse & attach themselves to the next neuron's receptors

lens

part of the eye that focuses light on the retina

retina

part of the eye where rods & cones convert light energy into nerve impulses

rods & cones

two types of cells that convert light energy into nerve impulses

1

Step _: Vibrations enter the auditory canal

2

Step_: The vibrations cause the eardrum to vibrate

3

Step_: Vibrations from the eardrum are picked up by the hammer, anvil, & stirrup

4

Step_: Vibrations from the stirrup are transmitted to the oval window

5

Step_: Pressure waves are created in the fluid-filled cochlea

6

Step_: Hair impulses respond to pressure waves by producing nerve impulses

cocaine

a drug that causes the sudden release of dopamine, a neurotransmitter

opiates

a drug that acts like endorphins, which deal with pain

meninges

connective tissues that wrap the brain & spinal cord in three layers

cerebrospinal fluid

this is found between meninges & the brain or spinal cord & acts as a protective shock absorber and allows nutrient/waste exchange between the blood & nervous system

circulatory system

system that circulates oxygen, nutrients, waste, & CO2

association

type of neuron that connects motor & sensory neurons

motor

type of neuron that carries impulses from the spinal cord

sensory

type of neuron that carries impulses to the spinal cord

chambers

the heart has four ____

right atrium

blood flows from the body into here

left atrium

blood flows from the lungs into here

left ventricle

blood flows from the heart to the body through here

right ventricle

blood flows away from the heart to the lungs through here

vein

blood flows to the heart

artery

blood flows away from the heart

valve

keeps blood flowing in one direction

pulmonary veins

blood vessels on the sides of the heart

superior vena cava

the vein on top of the heart

inferior vena cava

the vein on the bottom of the heart

septum

the part that separates the left & right halves of the heart

arteries

strong, flexible, & resilient blood vessels

arteries

bloods vessels that bear the highest blood pressures

arteries

blood vessels that narrow when the heart relaxes

arterioles

after branching out a lot, arteries become these

capillaries

tiny, extremely thin-walled blood vessels

capillaries

act as a bridge between veins and arteries

capillaries

blood vessels that have thin walls that allow oxygen & nutrients to leave the blood & enter tissues

capillaries

blood vessels that allow waste to pass form tissues into the blood

venules

blood vessels that connect capillaries & veins

veins

blood vessels with thin walls that can dilate when more fluid enters them

red

type of blood cells that carry oxygen

red, white

type of blood cells produced in the bone marrow

white

type of blood cells that work in the immune system

platelets

cell fragments that form clots to heal blood vessel ruptures

antigens

molecules that can be found on the surface of red blood cells

antibodies

substances produced by the immune system to help destroy foreign materials

respiratory system

system that brings in oxygen & puts out carbon dioxide

nose

where air enters & hair filters extraneous particles

pharynx

upper throat, where both air & food pass through

larynx

voice box/Adam's apple

epiglotis

flap to keep food out of the lungs

bronchi

branches in lungs attached to aveoli

bronchi

branches where air enters the lungs

lungs

these put oxygen in the blood stream

lungs

gas exchange occurs here

nose, pharynx, larynx, epiglotis, trachea, bronchi, lungs

order of respiratory system

aveoli

air sacs in the lungs where gas exchange occurs

capillaries

in gas exchange, oxygen enters the ______

aveoli

in gas exchange, carbon dioxide enters the ______

diffusion

gas exchange is a form of _______

reproductive system

system that produces offspring

vas deferens

where sperm is stored before leaving the body

seminal vesicle

fluid from here nourishes sperm with fructose for energy

epididymis

where sperm develop & become able to move

testis

where sperm is produced & testosterone is secreted

scrotum

holds testes outside the body for the required temperature

prostate

basic fluid from here neutralizes acid in the vagina

penis

puts sperm in the vagina

uretha

where urine & semen go through

testis, epididymis, vas deferens, uretha

structures sperm passes through

fallopian tubes

egg passes through here

fallopian tubes

fertilization occurs here

ovaries

stores immature eggs

ovaries

ovulation occurs here

ovulation

mature egg leaves the ovaries

uterus

if fertilization occurs a baby grows here; if not, lining is shed

vagina

penis goes in; baby goes out

FSH

hormone produced in the pituitary gland that helps follicle development in the ovaries

LH

hormone produced in the pituitary gland that causes ovulation

estrogen

hormone produced in the ovaries that helps uterus lining thicken in preparation for a baby

progesterone

hormone produced in the corpus luteum that stops production of LH & FSH

follicular

stage of the menstrual cycle in which the follicle grows because of FSH

follicular stage

days 1-10 of the menstrual cycle

luteal

stage of the menstrual cycle in which the corpus lutem makes progesterone; if fertilization occurs the corpus luteum stays for several weeks

menstruation

stage of the menstrual cycle in which the uterus' lining is shed

ovulation

stage of the menstrual cycle in which the egg is released from the ovary to the fallopian tube

ovulation

days 10-14 of the menstrual cycle

immune system

system that protects the body

immune system

system that rids the body of foreign substances

immune system

system that heals the body

immune system

system that fights pathogens

pathogen

something that causes disease

nonspecific

_____ responses do not distinguish between one pathogen & another

mucus

traps pathogens in the nose & throat

fever

increases body temperature to slow the growth of pathogens

interferon

inhibits the synthesis of viral proteins & helps block viral replication

cilia

push pathogens away from the lungs

skin

provides a barrier that prevents pathogens from entering the body

inflamatory response

produces white blood cells to fight infection

humoral immunity

specific defense

b cells

white blood cells that recognize antigens & produce plasma cells & memory ______

plasma cells

produce antibodies against antigens

memory b cells

cells that retain the ability to produce antibodies against an antigen, improving the body's reaction

cell-mediated immunity

this gets rid of specific cells & pathogens

t cells

white blood cells involved in cell-mediated immunity

memory t cell

causes a secondary response if a pathogen that has already caused a response enters the body again

suppressor t cell

releases substances that shut down killer t cells

killer t cell

finds & destroys cells infected with a pathogen

helper t cell

produces memory t cells

capsid

protein that surrounds genetic material in a virus

t4 bacteriophage

robot virus; attacks bacteria

tobacco mosaic

corn cob virus; attacks tobacco

influenza

sphere virus; causes the flu

lysis

cut open or burst open

1

Step_: Virus attaches to host cell

2

Step_: Virus injects its genetic material into host cell

3

Step_: Virus uses host DNA & proteins to replicate its own genetic material

4

Step_: virus replicates

5

Step_: virus causes the host cell to lyse

lysogenic infection

virus attack method in which viral genetic material becomes a part of the host DNA

negative

charge of a resting neuron

positive

charge of ions that enter a stimulated neuron

sodium

type of ions that enter a stimulated neuron

sodium-potassium pump

pumps 3Na+(sodium) out for every 2K+(potassium) in

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