The breaking down of food and liquids into simpler forms that the body can use (or eliminate).
The transfer of nutrients and water from the digestive tract into the blood stream.
Teeth between the canines that are used for cutting.
Teeth in front of the premolars that rip and tear food.
Teeth in front of the molars for shearing food.
Teeth toward the back of the mouth for grinding food.
The hard calcium covering over a tooth.
One of the salivary glands behind the ear.
One of the salivary glands underneath the tongue.
One of the salivary glands underneath the jaw.
The liquid secreted in the mouth to begin digestion, consisting of water, proteins (including mucin), and enzymes.
A gland the produces saliva and secretes it into the mouth.
The tube that brings food from the pharynx to the stomach.
The first part of the small intestine, connecting the stomach to the jejunum.
The main digestive organ, in which food is stored and digestion begins.
The 22 foot-long part of the digestive tract where most digestion and absorption takes place; it consists of the duodenum, jejunum, and the ileum.
An organ below the lungs with several functions, including the production of a chemical called bile that aids digestion.
A large gland below the stomach that produces the hormones insulin and glucagon, which are used for energy metabolism.
The small storage sac that holds bile from the liver until it is needed.
A greenish-yellow fluid produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder, that helps the fat digestion in the small intestine.
The long, coiling part of the small intestine that digests food and absorbs nutrients.
The end of the small intestine that connects it to the large intestine.
The thick, 5 foot-long section of the digestive tract where water is absorbed and feces are stored. (aka 'colon')
The end of the large intestine.
The pathway from the mouth to the anus which moves food and waste product into and out of the body.
A soft, wet ball of chewed food.
An enzyme that breaks complex sugars (like starch) into simple sugar (like glucose).
The repeated waves of smooth muscle contraction that move items (like food or waste) through a tube.
The acidic fluids secreted by the stomach that begin digestion.
An enzyme that digests protein.
A thick, protective substance produced by the nose, throat, stomach and other organs that coat and trap foreign particles so they can be removed from the body.
Non-enzyme molecules (such as vitamins) used to activate enzymes.
The process by which big clumps of fat are separated into smaller, easier to digest droplets.
An enzyme that digests lactose into simple sugars.
An enzyme that digests fats into fatty acids.
An enzyme that digests maltose into simple sugars.
An enzyme that digests complex proteins into simpler proteins and amino acids.
An enzyme that digests sucrose into simple sugars.
An enzyme that digests complex proteins into simpler proteins and also catalyzes other enzymes.
An enzyme in some microorganisms that breaks down cellulose; it is not found in most mammals.
The diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane.
Having the same concentration of solutes as another solution.
Having a lower concentration of solutes than another solution.
Having a higher concentration of solutes than another solution.
The sensors in the hypothalamus that create the thirst sensation.
The two organs under the ribs that filter waste out of the blood as urine.
The sac where urine is stored.
One of the two tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder.
Relating to the kidney.
The structures in the kidney where blood filtration takes place.
A structure in a renal pyramid of the kidney that filters blood.
Antidiuretic hormone; it reduces water removal by the kidney (thereby increasing blood pressure).
Atrial natriuertic peptide, increases water and sodium removal by the kidney (to decrease blood pressure).
A hard, painful mass of calcium salts that forms in the kidney.
Abnormal or reduced function of a kidney.
Total cessation of function of a kidney.
A medical procedure in which a machine is used to filter the blood, once the kidneys have become unable to filter all the blood on their own.
The inability to control urination.
urinary tract infections
Bacterial infections of the urinary tract, often in the urinary bladder, sometimes caused by kidney disease or stones.