Exam Review: DNA & RNA

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DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid; the genetic material that carries information about an organism and is passed from parent to offspring.

RNA

ribonucleic acid; a nucleic acid that plays an important role in the production of proteins

bacteriophage

a virus that infects bacteria.

transformation

Process in which one strain of bacteria is changed by a gene or genes from another strain of bacteria.

nucleotide

monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base

gene

sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait

chromatin

granular material visible within the nucleus; consists of DNA tightly coiled around proteins

DNA polymerase

enzyme involved in DNA replication that joins individual nucleotides to produce a DNA molecule

RNA polymerase

An enzyme that links together the growing chain of ribonucleotides during transcription.

intron

sequence of DNA that is not involved in coding for a protein

exon

expressed sequence of DNA ; codes for a protein

codon

three-nucleotide sequence on messenger RNA that codes for a single amino acid

mRNA

messenger RNA; type of RNA that carries instructions from DNA in the nucleus to the ribosome

rRNA

ribosomal RNA; type of RNA that makes up part of the ribosome and is the location of protein synthesis

tRNA

transfer RNA; type of RNA that carries amino acids to the ribosome during translation

replication

the process by which a cell makes a copy of the DNA in its nucleus

transcription

process in which part of the nucleotide sequence of DNA is copied into a complementary sequence of mRNA

translation

The synthesis of a polypeptide using the genetic information encoded in an mRNA molecule. There is a change of "language" from nucleotides to amino acids.

mutation

a change in the nucleotide-base sequence of a gene or DNA molecule

point mutation

mutation in which one or just a few nucleotides in a gene are changed; examples are insertions, deletions and substitutions

frameshift mutation

mutation that shifts the "reading" frame of the genetic message by inserting or deleting a nucleotide

chromosomal mutation

Deletions, insertions, inversions, and translocations are types of these; changes in the number or structure of chromosomes

insertion

A mutation involving the addition of one or more nucleotide pairs to a gene.

deletion

a mutation that causes the loss of one or more nucleotides from a gene

substitution

a mutation in which a nucleotide or a codon in DNA is replaced with a different mucleotide

Avery

Scientist that concluded that DNA was the factor that caused one bacterium to transform into another.

Griffith

scientist who experimented with bacteria to find out how it made people sick. Discovered process of transformation.

Hershey and Chase

Used radioactive material to label DNA and protein; infected bacteria passed on DNA; helped prove that DNA is genetic material not proteins

Chargaff

The individual responsible for discovering the base pairing rules for DNA.

Watson and Crick

nobel prize winners for correctly describing the structure of DNA as a double helix

Rosalind Franklin

Scientist who generated x-ray images of DNA, which povided Watson and Crick with key data about DNA double helix structure

Draw and label the three parts of a nucleotide

Sugar phosphate backbone and a nitrogenous base (A, T, C or G)

Describe the structure of DNA including the shape, components, and what bonds hold the bases together.

Shape is a double helix;
The three components include the sugar deoxyribose, a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base;
The bases are held together by hydrogen bonds

base pairing

principle that bonds in DNA can form only between adenine and thymine and between guanine and cytosine

If a DNA molecule has 22% adenine, what percentage is guanine?

28% (See explanation below)
If adenine = 22% then thymine = 22% for a total of 44% because of base pairing. This means that guanine and cytosine = 100% - 44% = 56%. So guanine is half of 56% = 28%.

Illustrate base pairing in DNA and RNA

In DNA:
A - T and C - G
In RNA: (Remember thymine is replaced by uracil)
A - U and C - G

What are the differences between DNA and RNA

Make a table that compares replication, transcription and translation.
Include the following components for each process: location in the cell, enzyme(s) involved, end product

Compare and contrast gene mutations and chromosomal mutations.

Gene mutations involve changes in one or a few nucleotides and include insertions, deletions and substitutions; Chromosomal mutations involve changes in the number or structure of chromosomes affecting many nuclotides and include inversions, deletions, translocations, and duplications

Which type of point mutations affect the resulting protein the most? The least? EXPLAIN Why!

Deletions and insertions affect the resulting protein the most because each of these mutations cause a change in the reading frame (See picture). Substitution mutations only affect one amino acid so they affect the resulting protein minimally.

Using the sequence of DNA, show the results of transcription and translation...
TAC - CTA - GCT - ATA - AAT - ATT

Original DNA:
TAC - CTA - GCT - ATA - AAT - ATT
mRNA (transcription):
AUG - GAU - CGA - UAU - UUA - UAA
polypeptide chain (translation):
methionine - aspartic acid - arginine - tyrosine - leucine - stop

Describe and draw an illustration of each of the 4 types of chromosomal mutations

Deletions involve the loss of all or part of a chromosome
Duplications produce extra copies of parts of a chromosome
Inversions reverse the direction of parts of chromosomes
Translocations occur when part of one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another

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