a Viking story of adventure
a device invented in the late 1400's. It has a needle that always points north, and it enabled sailors to tell direction even when clouds covered the moon or the sun.
an invention that allowed sailors to steer by the stars
cleaning fish and preserving them in layers of salt
control of a product or service by one company. In return for a trader bringing settlers to New France the king would grant him a monopoly of the fur trade.
the name Champlain used for the settlement and fort built on what is now the site of Quebec City
a type of gun used by the French settlers
First-hand accounts of history prepared by people who lived at the time. These include sources such as newspapers, diaries, letters, census records, old maps and sketches.
Second-hand accounts of historical events. These can be from people who heard about events from an eye witness, or books and articles written about the past.
means "greasy beaver" Pelts worn by the native people before they were sold to fur traders made the finest felt for European hats.
an important sign of a person's high rank in society
coureur de bois
"runners of the woods". French traders who went west to collect furs from the natives. They brought the furs back to merchants in Montreal and Quebec.
traders who had permits to trade issued by the Governor of New France. Only a limited number of permits were issued to try and keep settlers from leaving their farms and becoming courier de bois.
Roman Catholic priests from France who went to work among the native people. They believed it was their duty to convert the natives to Catholicism.
Missionary priests who were part of a religious community known as the Society of Jesus.
skilled craftsmen who volunteered their help to build settlements for the missionaries.
priests who travelled among the tiny settlements of New France
Books about people's lives