Developmental Psych Exam 2

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Grossmont dev. psych

Girls who typically bully:

mock and ridicule their victim

By the age of 10, which of the following is true regarding friendships?

Both boys and girls want to have best friends.

In middle childhood, the crucial question regarding family structure is:

Whatever the structure, does it fulfill the five essential functions for school-age children?

The statement that best reflects moral reasoning at the preconventional level is:

"I am careful not to get caught"

Compared with nuclear families, extended families typically:

involve more people

According to Erikson, if 9 year old Anna is successful in solving her psychosocial conflict, she should be developing a view of herself as:

industrious

Research shows that a child is most likely to be a victim of bullying if the child is:

withdrawn-rejected

Spreading insults and rumors by means of e-mails, texts, or web postings is called:

cyberbullying

Carla is good because she is afraid she will be punished if she isn't. Carla is in which level of Kohlberg's view of moral development?

preconventional

When children are able to understand social interactions, including the causes and consequences of behavior, they have acquired a measure of:

socia cognition

School-age children would most admire:

Marla, who was punished for not telling the teacher who threw a paper airplane.

Stella's parents observed that she has begun to participate in moral arguments on issues of right and wrong. Her matured moral thinking is due to:

concrete operational thinking and peer experience

In the United States, in which of the following ethnic groups would you be least likely to find single fathers?

Asian Americans

The key word in the definition of bullying is:

repeated

Which of the following factors have the greatest influence on whether or not children thrive in a blended family?

the SES and emotional security of the parents

Changes in primary sex characteristics during puberty include:

the uterus and testes begin to grow

Does the ability of schoolchildren to use deductive reasoning tend to develop at the same time as their ability to use inductive reasoning?

No, deductive reasoning tends to develop later than inductive reasoning.

During the growth spurt, the last part(s) of the body to grow is (are) the:

torso

Family conflict and stress:

may cause the early onset of puberty

For both girls and boys, puberty typically begins as young as ______ years or as late as ______ years.

8;14

For boys, the event that most closely parallels menarche is the

spermarche

For boys, the usual sequence of physical changes in puberty is:

growth of the testes; initial pubic-hair growth; growth of the penis; spermarche.

For girls, the usual sequence of physical changes in puberty is:

the beginning of breast development, the growth spurt, and menarche.

For males, the hormone that produces most sexual changes is:

testosterone

In Inhelder and Piaget's balance experiment, a child who systematically tests the idea that the relationship between weight and distance is reciprocal is probably age:

14

Many adolescents feel that their own thoughts and experiences are far more extraordinary than other peoples'. This is part of their:

personal fable

Marsha says, "There is no way I am going to school today with this bruise on my cheek. Everybody is going to laugh at me." Marsha is demonstrating:

her belief in an imaginary audience

Of the following parts of the brain, which is the last to fully mature in adolescence?

prefrontal cortex

One of the most prominent aspects of adolescent thought is the ability to:

think in terms of possibilities

Sixteen-year-old Paul drinks heavily and drives dangerously fast, believing that he cannot be hurt. Paul is demonstrating:

the invincibility fable

The first hormones to begin the process of puberty are triggered in the child's:

brain

The hormone that causes gonads to increase the production of estrogen and testosterone is:

GnRH

What-if propositions require:

hypothetical thought

Which of the following statements is correct regarding the relationship between body fat and the onset of puberty?

There is a positive correlation between obesity and early onset of puberty

Bickering between parents and teenagers:

usually concerns clothes and personal habits

Angel's parents always wanted him to be part of the family business—and Angel never questioned this. At 21, Angel decided to leave the business to become a teacher. Angel is resisting:

identity forclosure

The ultimate psychosocial goal, according to Erikson, is identity:

achievement

Arrest statistics do not accurately reflect the prevalence of adolescent delinquency because:

many offenders are never caught

At age 17, Jeff aspired to become a serious musician. His group of friends began to change as he made more friends with serious musical interests and drifted away from friends with other interests. He is exhibiting peer:

selection

Pressure to conform to one's friends or contemporaries in behavior, dress, and attitude is referred to as:

peer pressure

Compared with earlier times in their lives, many adolescents are

less self-confident than they were as children

Approximately 1 in _____ adolescent girls is affected by clinical depression.

5

According to Erikson, the identity status characterized by not questioning and no commitment is:

diffusion

In which of the following relationships are you likely to find the most bickering?

mothers and daughters

Cliques and crowds provide adolescents with social:

control and social support

The term for a pause in identity formation, when alternatives are explored before final choices are made, is known as:

moratorium

According to Erikson, the goal of adolescence is to:

form a coherent identity

According to Dunphy, which of the following describes the sequence of heterosexual relationships during childhood and adolescence?

groups of same-sex friends, public interactions within a crowd of mixed-sex groups, small mixed-sex groups of the advanced members of the crowd, formation of couples with private intimacies

Adolescence is known as a time when young people distance themselves from the values and behaviors of older people. Which of the following statements is true regarding this behavior?

Adolescents who feel valued by their communities and their elders are less likely to engage in unhealthy behaviors.

A person between the ages of 18 and 25 is entering a new developmental stage called:

emerging adulthood

According to Erikson, once the emerging adult has established a sense of identity, they will need to resolve which of the following crises?

intimacy versus isolation

According to Labouvie-Vief, which of the following characteristics the cognitive development of the emerging adult?

the emergence of complex, critical, and relativizing thinking

During emerging adulthood, intimacy is found primarily in:

relationships with friends, family, and sexual partners

In the United States, emerging adults are less likely to live at home than those in some other cultures. Which of the following is true?

they are still likely to receive financial support from their parents

In the United States, the death rate among emerging adult males is approximately ______ per year.

15,000

Jessica is 21 years old. How is her circle of friends likely to differ from that of her mother when she was Jessica's age?

Jessica's circle of friends is more likely to include males and females

Juan is one of the "21-at-21" drinkers. What does this mean?

10 percent of emerging adults who consume 21 drinks to celebrate 21st

The current level of food availability means that in almost every nation, women have reached their full height by age ______ and men by age ______.

16;18

Today's emerging adults have ______ sexual partners and ______ babies than the emerging adults of only a few years ago.

more; fewer

What is the estimated incidence of anxiety disorders among emerging adults in the United States?

25 percent

What percentage of emerging adults in the United States have had at least one STI?

50 percent

Which of Sternberg's three components of love are influenced by the social context?

commitment

Which of the following characterizes integrated adults?

they are able to regulate emotions and logic

Which of the following groups is most likely to report having smoked cigarettes in the past 30 days?

emerging adults, ages 19-25

Which of the following groups reports the lowest rates of chronic illness?

18-24 years old

Which of the following is a distinct activity of emerging adulthood?

extreme sports

Which of the following is true of couples who cohabit before they are married?

they are more likely to divorce if they marry

Which of the following is true regarding the self-esteem of emerging adults?

In spite of the new challenges and stressors that they face, their self-esteem is higher than earlier and continues to rise throughout emerging adulthood.

Which of the following statistics is true of schizophrenia?

it is more common in males than females

Which of the following is characteristic of Post-formal thinking?

understanding that one's perspective is one of many potentially valid views

Juan is a 20 year old Hispanic American who believes that success in school is for females and whites. He may be experiencing

stereotype threat

The changes that occur in middle adulthood:

All answers are correct

The decline in fluid intelligence during middle adulthood

is temporarily counteracted by increases in crystallized intelligence

Diseases and chronic conditions associated with aging

may be strongly affected by lifestyle

For a typical middle-aged adult, intelligence increases:

in the specific areas that reflect his or her interest

Jim couldn't understand why he kept slowly gaining weight. He wasn't eating any more than usual and he maintained his regular exercise routine. What explains his weight gain?

His metabolism slowed down by a third between emerging and late adulthood

By the end of middle age, nearly everyone needs:

reading glasses.

By age 65, a person is most likely to lose:

nearly an inch in height

Brian is typical of his cohort. He is approaching age 30, has conquered his drug addiction, and now drinks very moderately. What is most likely to have prompted him to change?

maturity and marriage

Adulthood covers which four decades of life?

25-65

From a biological perspective, women should try to conceive before age ______ and men before age ______.

30; 40

During adulthood, what happens to practical intelligence?

it increases

Women experience menopause; men experience:

andropause

Gus has been picking up some extra shifts at work to make ends meet, including taking some all-night shifts. He has been making some costly errors on the job that he's never made before, even when he worked longer hours. What has caused the change?

his lack of sleep slows his thinking and problem-solving abilities

Linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, musical and interpersonal intelligence are five of Gardner's multiple intelligences. The other three are

kinesthetic, interpersonal, and naturalistic

Which of the following affects the development of expertise?

all answers are correct

Practical intelligence would be most needed to

understand the needs of family members

As Tom helped himself to a fourth beer, he announced to everyone at the barbecue that alcohol is healthy in moderation. How does the text define "moderation"?

no more than two drinks of moderate size per day

Katherine, age 50, and her daughter Lisa, age 20, have recently taken jobs as waitresses. Compared to Lisa, Katherine will probably:

employ more time management strategies

A person who has many of the personality traits associated with extroversion would most likely be described as:

active and outgoing

After the children are grown, most married couples:

have adequate time for their relationship

As adults age, their friendships tend to

improve

Aunt Emily is the family's kinkeeper. This means that she assumes responsibility for:

gathering the family for holidays, sending birthday reminders, and disseminating family communications.

Because they are called on to help both older and younger generations of the family, middle-aged adults have been called the:

sandwich generation

Cheryl is entering the workforce due to a recent divorce. As a single parent with three children, she needs at least a livable wage, good benefits, and a retirement plan. She is focused on the:

extrinsic rewards of work

Evelyn, a mother of two, has been divorced for six years and would like to remarry. Most likely, she will marry a man who:

has children from a previous marriage

Identify the stage of adulthood from Erikson's theory of psychosocial development.

generativity versus stagnation

In the United States today, the social clock:

allows for greater diversity than in the past

Sam is moody, anxious, and self-punishing. Sam is high in:

neuroticism

Some people refer to a period of unusual anxiety, reexamination, and transformation during middle adulthood as a(n):

midlife crisis

Typically, the relationship between middle-aged adults and their parents:

improves with age

Which most accurately depicts middle age?

Changes do not necessarily cluster around age 40.

Because much is changing in the employment landscape, how work affects adult development is

unclear

A break-up would be most stressful for which of the following individuals?

Carlene, who is in a long-term marriage

Consequences of a particular chronic disease are characteristic of what type of aging?

secondary

Elderly people who are hard of hearing:

are often excluded from social give and take

In Schaie's Seattle Longitudinal Study, the cognitive decline of late adulthood was most evident in which of the following?

processing speed

Maximum life span is said to be ______ years for humans.

122

Primary aging refers to age-related changes that:

inevitably take place as time goes by

The chief reason the elderly have difficulty in getting enough nutrients is the:

reduced efficiency of the digestive system

The main reason we may not notice the young-old is that:

they do not fit our stereotypes of the elderly

The most common cause of dementia is:

Alzheimer disease

The multidisciplinary, scientific study of old age is called:

gerontology

The overall slowdown in cognitive abilities in the days or months before death is referred to as:

terminal decline

The primary reason older people receive less input into their brains is that:

their senses decline, reducing sensory input

The term "ageism" refers to:

judging people on the basis of chronological age

Using elderspeak when engaging in conversation with an older adult:

is demeaning

When Justin's mother said to her elderly father, "Dad, Justin wants to share his baseball story with you!" he replied, "I don't care about history anymore." Why would her father respond in that way?

Reduced auditory input prevented him from hearing the entire communication

Which of the following is associated with wisdom?

practical life experience

Which senses become less sharp in late adulthood?

all answers correct

The closest but most vulnerable family relationship when the parent is in late adulthood is the relationship between:

mother and daughter

The most important buffer against loss that comes from retirement and widowhood is having:

at least one close friend

At age 65, Mrs. Walker reacted to her recent retirement in much the same way that she dealt with earlier life changes. This illustrates:

continuity theory

The style of grandparenting that generally brings the most satisfaction to middle-aged individuals in the United States is the ______ role.

companionate

Recent research has indicated that most older adults:

want to retire as soon as they are eligible.

Mr. Inman is 71 years old and has just enrolled in a course at the local college. Which of the following is least likely to be his motivation?

career advancement

Erikson called the final crisis of development:

integrity versus despair

Compared to younger couples, older couples in long-term marriages:

are closer

Polly effusively describes her youth and earlier adulthood as "perfect," having had many wonderful experiences, a loving family, and good friends. She is demonstrating:

the positivity effect

Compared to single older adults, the married elderly tend to be:

happier and wealthier

Which of the following statements about older people and religion is true?

Older people are less likely to attend weekly religious services than are younger people.

Most elder abuse is committed by:

adult children

Claire and Dennis have lived in the same house for over 40 years. They reared their children there and were actively involved in the community. As they age, their children want them to move to a nearby small apartment. Like many other older adults, Claire and Dennis:

prefer to age in place

The term "ADL" refers to

activities of daily life

Where is an elderly person most likely to prefer to live?

his or her own home

An important function of the mourning process is to:

help prevent grief-stricken individuals from committing self-destructive acts.

James, age 50, is terminally ill. He is primarily focused on:

leaving something undone

Mrs. Cannon has been diagnosed as terminally ill, but she insists she will recover because her laboratory results were mixed up with someone else's. Kübler-Ross would say that Mrs. Cannon is in the emotional stage of:

denial

The function of the hospice is to:

allow people to die in peace

The period in the life span where death is less feared is:

adolescence

What is the public and ritualistic expression of bereavement?

mourning

What is the sense of loss following a death?

bereavement

Which of the following is a characteristic of a good death?

all answers correct

Which of the following is true regarding hospice care?

A diagnosis of terminally ill must be made in order to qualify for services.

Which of the following makes a good death more likely now than it was in the past?

hospice care

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