USMLE Respiratory Rx

36 terms by x10tacle 

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Diphenhydramine

1st generation H1 blocker

Dimenhydrinate

1st generation H1 blocker

Chlorpheniramine

1st generation H1 blocker

Loratadine

2nd generation H1 blocker

Fexfenadine

2nd generation H1 blocker

Desloratadine

2nd generation H1 blocker

Cetirizine

2nd generation H1 blocker

Isoproterenol

Relaxes bronchial smooth muscle (beta2)

Isoproterenol

Adverse effect is tachycardia (beta1)

Albuterol

Relaxes bronchial smooth muscle (beta2). Use during acute exacerbation

Salmeterol

Long acting agent for asthma prophylaxis

Salmeterol

Tremor and arrhythmia

Theophylline (methylxanthines)

Inhibits phosphodiesterase, decreases cAMP hydrolysis -> bronchodilation

Theophylline (methylxanthines)

Narrow therapeutic index

Theophylline (methylxanthines)

Cardiotoxicity

Theophylline (methylxanthines)

Neurotoxicity

Theophylline (methylxanthines)

P-450 metabolism

Theophylline (methylxanthines)

Blocks actions of adenosine

Ipratropium

Muscarinic antagonist

Ipratropium

Competitive block of muscarinic receptors, preventing bronchoconstriction

Ipratropium

Used for asthma and COPD

Cromolyn

Prevents release of mediators from mast cells

Cromolyn

Effective only for the prophylaxis of asthma. Not effective during an acute attack. Toxicity rare.

Beclomethasone, prednisone (corticosteroids)

Inhibit cytokine synthesis

Beclomethasone, prednisone (corticosteroids)

Inactivates NF-kB (transcription factor for TNFa and other inflammatory agents)

Beclomethasone, prednisone (corticosteroids)

1st line therapy for chronic asthma

Zileuton

5-lipoxygenase inhibitor

Zileuton

Blocks conversion of arachidonic acid to leukotrienes

Zafirlukast

Block leukotriene receptors

Zafirlukast

Especially good for aspirin-induced asthma

Montelukast

Block leukotriene receptors

Montelukast

Especially good for aspirin-induced asthma

Guaifenesin

Removes excess sputum but large doses necessary; does not suppress cough reflex

N-acetylcysteine

Mucolytic. Loosens plugs in CF. Antidote for acetominophen overdose.

Bosentan

Used to Tx PHTN.

Bosentan

Competitively antagonizes endothelin-1 receptors, decreasing pulmonary vascular resistance.

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