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peptides

glucagon, growth hormone, insulin

amines

T4 (thyroxin) ,norepinephrine, epinephrine,T3 (triiodothyronine), vasopressin ADH

steroids

estradiol, aldosterone, testosterone, cortisol

Peptide hormones are synthesized as large precursor hormones called ___. The hormones or (prohormones) are stored in ___ ___ and released from the cell by ___. Do peptide hormones require a carrier in the bloodstream?

prohormones; secretory vesicles; exocytosis; hydrophilic - no carrier required

Catecholamines are produced in the ___ of the adrenal gland and are classified as ___ hormones because they are derived from ___. Stimulation of the chromaffin cells causes an influx of ___ ions, which causes the vesicles to merge with the plasma membrane and release the hormone by ___. Are catecholamines water soluble or lipid soluble?

medulla; amine; tyrosine; calcium; exocytosis; hydrophilic - no carrier needed

Thyroid hormones include two molecules called ___ and ___. T3 consists of two ___ molecules plus ___ iodine molecules and is (more or less?) abundant than T4. Are carriers required for the transport of thyroid hormones?

T3; T4; tyrosine; 3; less; lipophilic - carriers required

All steroid hormones are derived from ___; which steroid hormone is produced is determined by the ___ present in the cell. The common precursor molecule for all steroid hormones is ___. Steroid hormones enter the bloodstream by ___ and (do or do not?) require a carrier. The rate of secretion of steroid hormones is (faster or slower?) than that of catecholamines because steroid hormones are not ___.

cholesterol; enzymes; pregnenolone; diffusion; do; slower; stored (in secretory vesicles)

Preganglionic sympathetic fibers trigger the release of ___ and ___ (hormones) from the ___ ___ (gland). This is an example of neural regulation of hormone secretion.

epinephrine; norepinephrine; adrenal medulla

Two examples of hormonal regulation of hormone secretion include: (1) the negative feedback of T3 and T4 to decrease ___ levels; and (2) the negative feedback of cortisol, which decreases both ___ and ___ levels.

TSH; ACTH; CRH

Besides increased levels of plasma glucose and amino acids (humoral regulation), increased levels of ___ (hormone) and stimulation of the ___ nervous system also increase plasma insulin levels.

GIP; parasympathetic

Some hormones are released in rhythmic 24-hour patterns known as ___ rhythms. ___ is a hormone allowing stressful stimuli to override this pattern and increase the plasma hormone levels. In contrast, ___ hormones (amine hormones) are an example of large amounts of the hormones being bound to carrier proteins in the plasma, forming a large circulating reservoir. Thus, acute changes do not produce large changes in the plasma levels of these hormones.

circadian; cortisol; thyroid

The ___ and ___ are the major organs that metabolize hormones. The type of hormone determines how fast they are metabolized. ___ and ___ are rapidly metabolized, while ___ and ___ take longer to metabolize.

liver; kidneys; peptide hormones; catecholamines; thyroid hormones; steroid hormones

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