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yayyy!!! we have a test tomorrow on these :)

alienation

this term, from Marxism, suggests that under Capitalism we live estranged from out true human natures

allegory

a story of some complexity that corresponds to another situation on a deeper level. Animal Farm is about a community of animals, but reflects the Russian Revolution and satirises Communism. The dual perspective, the link between animal story and political story gives it its interest and wit

alliteration

repetition of an identical consonant sound at the beginning of stressed words, usually close together.

allusion

a reference to an event, person, place, work of literature etc. that gives addtional layers of meaning to a text or enlarges its frame of reference.

ambiguity

where language and tone are unclear and may have two or more interpretations or meanings

ambivalence

where the writers attitude to, for example, a charcter or event is not clear cut, but may seem to hold at least two responses

antithesis

contrasting ideas by balancing words of opposite meaning and idea

atmosphere

confused with mood, it is a place, setting or suroundings

assonance

repetition od similar vowel sounds close to one another, middle of word

bathos

a sudden descent from the sublime or serious, to the ridiculous or trivial

bildungsroman

german term for a novel focusing on the development of a character from youth to maturity

blank verse

unrhymed poetry not broken into stanzas, keeping to a strict pattern in each line, usually in iambic pentameter

caesura

a break or pause within a line of poetry by comma or full stop or unmarked pause, used for emphasis, or to change direction or pace

caricature

an exagerrated representation of a character often by emphasizing a small number of features, usually for comic and satiric purposes

protagonist

main character in a work

quatrain

stanza or group of four lines that can have different rhyme schemes

refrain

repetition in a work of literature of a phrase or lines

rhythm

different than metre, flow of sound created by stressed and unstressed syllables

satire

exposing and ridiculing of human follies in a society, sometimes with the aim to reform, sometimes to deflate

setting

where the story takes place

simile

where a comparison is made with like or as

skaz

a technique of narration that mirrors oral narration with its hesitations, corrections, gramatical mistakes, interactions...

soliloquy

a speech by a character alone on stage, thinking aloud, revealing thoughts and emotions, or communicating directly with the audience

sonnet

a 14 line rhyming poem often in iambic pentameter

stanza

the blocks of lines into which a poem is organized

story

the events of a narrative in the chronological order in which they actually happened

stream of consciousness

the impression of a random stream of thoughts

style

necessary concept to know and use, but tricky to define and discuss. the distinctive traits in an author's work, the "how" of writing

subtext

ideas, feelings, thoughts, not dealt directly in the text but existing underneath

symbol

objects that represent or evoke an idea or concept of wider, abstract significance, as roses represent love

syntax

the grammatical structure of words in a sentence. the normal order of words can be slightly displaced to create a particular effect, without losing the sense

theme

central ideas or issues, often abstract explored or illistrated in a text

tone

the technique of writing to convey the attitude of the writer towards his/her subject. created through aspects of language

trochee/trochiac

the reverse of iambic as in:"Mary had a little lamb". It may be used as a contrast within an iambic line, to stress an idea

colloquial

everyday speech and language as opposed to a literary or formal register. the inclusin of the odd____ word or phrase in an otherwise formal work can be striking

conceit

a witty thought ot idea or iage, a fanciful or deliberately far-fetched comparison

concrete

refers to objects or aspects that may be perceived by the senses

connotation

an association that a wrod may suggest. very useful when discussing diciton

consonance

where the final consonants are the same in two or more words close together

contradiction

stating the opposite

couplet

two consecutive rhyming lines of verse. may clinch or emphasise an idea

defamiliarization

the technique of maknig the familiar seem new and strange, and thus making us see more vividly

denouement

literally, from the french, "unknotting." How the ending of a novel or play turns out, how the plot is unravelled or revealed

diction

the writer's choice of words or vocabulary

didactic

describes the tone or intention to preach a point..negative connotation

dramatic irony

a very powerful tool especiall in drama, used for tragic or comic purposes..the character is unaware of something

elegy

a mournful lament for times past or the dead

end stopped line

a lone of poetry where the meaning pauses or stops at the end of the line.. a pause for reflection

enjambement

the opposite of the above..the sense flows over from one line to another, perhaps even to the next stanze

epigram

a concise, ponted, witty statement

form

the shape of a work, the arrangement of its parts, the patterns, divisions and structures used

free verse

verse written without any fixed or traditional structure in meter or rhyme

genre

type of literature

grain

a reader can go acceptingly along with assumptions and values in a text or "go against teh grain", questioning it

hyperbole

a deliberate exagerration for various effects

iambic

unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable

idyll/idyllic

refers to innocent simple life in idealised rural setting

imagery

concrete descriptions we can see and sense in works of literature

internal rhyme

where there are rhymes within a line instead of, or as well as, at the ends of lines

irony

gap or mismatch between what is being said and what is intended

lyric

songlike peom expressing personal feeling

metaphor

comparison not using like or as

metre

the organization of lines of verse into regular patterns of stressed and unstressed syllables to achieve a rhythmic effect

mimesis

describes an interesting and common effect: the use of words that suggest movement, shape, size, texture

mood

describes a persons frame of mind or state of feeling

monologue

speech by a single speaker

motif

used with leitmotif, meaning recurrent elements in a work

omniscient narrator

"all knowing"

onomatopoeia

the effect of words that imitate the sound of things

oxymoron

two words of opposite meaning are joined

paradox

seemingly contradictory statement, but on reflection it makes sense, contains its own resolution to truth

parody

usually comic imitation of another work

pastiche

a literary work composed in the style of a well-known author

persona

the identity or character assumed by the author in a work of literature

personification

where human beings are attributed to an inanimate object

plot

events of a narrative in the order the author has chosen to present them

point of view

the angle through which the narrative is seen or told

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