monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
why is dna important
DNA replication is important because it ensures that the new cell will have the exact same genetic information as the original.
how does dna replicate?
DNA molecule unwinds and each strand is a template for complementary base pairing; each daughter helix contains an intact strand from the parent helix and a newly synthesized strand therefore DNA replication is semiconservative
what is translation
The process of converting information in a sequence of nitrogenous bases in mRNA into a sequence of amino acids in proteins
what are differences between DNA and RNA
sugar in RNA is ribose not deoxyribose
RNA is single stranded, DNA is double stranded
RNA has uracil instead of thymine
the stage of meiosis or mitosis when chromosomes move toward opposite ends of the nuclear spindle
A double membrane across the midline of a dividing plant cell, between which the new cell wall forms during cytokinesis.
regions of cytoplasmic material that in animal cells contain structures called centrioles
yknow how you got like these chromasome things well yea they like split in half an instead of an x you got like two ls yo
the readily stainable substance of a cell nucleus consisting of DNA and RNA and various proteins
The first sign of cleavage in an animal cell; a shallow groove in the cell surface near the old metaphase plate.
process in which homologous chromosomes exchange portions of their chromatids during meiosis
the regrouping of genes in an offspring that results in a genetic makeup that is different from that of the parents
chromosomes that have the same sequence of genes, that have the same structured, and that pair during meisosis
the random distribution of the pairs of genes on different chromosomes to the gametes
the appearance of the chromosomal makeup of a somatic cell in an individual or species (including the number and arrangement and size and structure of the chromosomes)
a specialized condensed region of each chromosome that appears during mitosis where the chromatids are held together to form an X shape
a spermatozoon or an ovum, An egg or sperm cell; a sex cell carries half the number of chromosomes found in other body cells.
one of the microtubules that extend across a dividing eukaryotic cell; assists in the movement of chromosomes
The cytoplasm seperates. Two new cells contain sames number of chromosomes as the original cell.
(genetics) modification of a cell or bacterium by the uptake and incorporation of exogenous DNA
semi-conservative DNA replication
when the parent strand is physically divided and used in two daughter strands
procedure used to separate and analyze DNA fragments by placing a mixture of DNA fragments at one end of a porous gel and applying an electrical voltage to the gel
bead-like structure in eukaryotic chromatin, composed of a short length of DNA wrapped around a core of histone proteins
difference between DNA and RNA
DNA: deoxyribose sugar, AT, CG, Remains in the nucleus; RNA: ribose sugar,AU, CG, Single-stranded helix, Found in nucleus and cytoplasm
process of gene cloning
1. isolate plasmid from bacterial cell
2. insert desired gene into plasmid (recombinant DNA molecule)
3. plasmid returned to bacterial cell (recombinant bacterium)
4. host cell grown in culture to form clone of cells containing "cloned" gene of interest
5. gene of interest may be used to alter organisms for particular purposes; proteins harvested may be used for specific purposes
30-40 cycles of 3 steps:
1. denaturation (heating)
2. annealing: 45 seconds, 54 degrees celsius, forward and reverse primers.
3. extension: 2 minutes 72 degrees, only dNTPs, dna replication
genetic material could be transferred between dead bacteria and living bacteria
Hersey and Chase experiment
Found that DNA was the genetic material by tagging the protein coat of DNA of a bacteriophage with two different isotopes (sulphur and phosphate) and found that the new bacteriophages made only contained the radioactive isotope that tagged the DNA
Proposed that DNA could transmit disease, not protein & that hereditary material was probably made of DNA, not protein
enzyme involved in DNA replication that joins individual nucleotides to produce a DNA molecule
A discontinuously synthesized DNA strand that elongates in a direction away from the replication fork.
the new continuous complementary DNA strand synthesized along the template strand in the mandatory 5' --> 3' direction
Short fragments of DNA that are a result of the synthesis of the lagging strand during DNA replication.
a small cellular inclusion consisting of a ring of DNA that is not in a chromosome but is capable of autonomous replication
took two sets of plants, one true-breeding for plants of regular height and the other-true breeding for plants of short or dwarf height,instead of letting the plants grow on there on he deliberately paired as parents one pair from each set, he called the first set he did the first generation. the first generation grew at regular height,no sign at all of a dwarf plant. the next set he did(the second generation) he did the same thing except three fourths were regular but one fourth was a dwarf plant. the traits that seemed to dissapear in the first generation repeated in the second showing a trait pattern.
inheritance in which heterozygotes have a phenotype intermediate between the phenotypes of the two homozygotes
a person who has some pathogen to which he is immune but who can pass it on to others, a person who has one recessive allele for a trait, but does not have the trait
the crossing of an individual of unknown genotype with a homozygous recessive individual to determine the unknown genotype
The idea that genetic material contributed "mix" together in a way that blue + yellow make green. Predicts that over many generations a freely mating population would give rise to a uniform population of individuals. Fails to explain how some traits reappear after skipping a generation. Disproved by Gregor Mendel.
chromosome theory of inheritance
generalization that genes are located on chromosomes and that the behavior of chromosomes during meiosis and fertilization accounts for inheritance patterns
process by which sperm from one flower's pollen fertilizes the eggs in a flower of a different plant