Diversity of Life
Results from diversity of its molecules
Most living things contain this
Building blocks of biological molecules; link to create polymers
Macromolecule; formed when monomers link
Remove water and form a covalent bond; make acid.
Add water and break bond to release monomers
2:1 Hydrogen to Oxygen ration; CHO; examples include monosaccharides and disaccharides
Simple sugar, 1 sugar
Main cellular fuel; transport sugar in plants
2 sugars linked by dehydration synthesis
Covalent bond found in sucrose
Many sugars linked together
Found in plants; polysaccharides of glucose; two types called aymlose and amylopectin
polysaccharide that branches out; most common (examples: potato, rice, grain)
Found in animals; polysaccharide of glucose but has more branches; stored in liver and muscles.
Structural polysaccharide of glucose; chief component of a plant cell walls; most animals lack the enzymes to break this down
Similar to cellulose; structural polysaccharide; has nitrogen; cannot be broken down by animals, (examples: exoskeletons, orthopods, cell walls of a fungi).
CHO; No 2:1 ration of H20; insoluable in water
example of lipid; long chain of carbon with attached hydrogens and a chemical group called a carboxyl (acid) group at one end.
Saturated Fatty Acids
Fully Saturated with hydrogen; shape is straight/linear. Example: butter.
Unsaturated Fatty Acids
Some of the hydrogens are replaced with a double bond; shape is bent. Example: oil
Functions are protection, insulation, energy, and storage; is a fat.
2 fatty acids and a phosphate group; found in cell membranes
4 rings of carbon; steroid hormones (testosterone and estrogen); present in cell membranes; forms bile (aids in fast absorbtion.
CHON; central to almost every function of life
Function of protein; makes up hair, horns, fur, bones, etc.
Function of protein; stores energy
Function of protein; muscles, cells, etc.
Function of protein; red blood cells, proteins, etc.
Amino Acids (AA)
20 that occur naturally in nature; contain a central, alpha C, a carboxyl (acid) group, and an R group ("rest of molecule")
protein formed when AA attach
Sequence (order of AA)
How peptides differ from each other
Order of AA in protein
Protein chain bends/folds due to formation of hydrogen bonds; forms coils called alpha-helix
Further folding to form 3D shape; due to hydrophobic and hydrophilic groups on AA
2 or more protein chains; example hemoglobin
CHONP; p = phosphate; information storage molecule
3 parts; 1. Nitrogenous Base; 2. Sugar; 3. Phosphate Group
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
5 carbons, no oxygen at carbon 2. Contain Deoxyribose (sugar). Double Helix shape
Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
5 carbons; has oxygen at carbon 2. Has C, G, A but NO T. Uracil substitutes. Single stranded, not a double helix.
Substitutes for T in RNA
Same in DNA and RNA
Found in plants and fungi; CHO; some have N (called alkaloid)
Phenolics containing Nitrogen; bitter tasting; natural pesticide
Example of Phenolic; tea/wood/bark; used in tanning leather; speculation of medicinal value
Complex 3D Phenolic; encrusts cellulose in wood
Type of Nitrogen base; contains 2 rings
Type of Nitrogen base; includes Cytosine and Thymine
Ring of Purine; "A"
Ring of Purine; "G"
Found in both DNA and RNA; contained in Pyrimidine
Found in DNA only; contained in Pyrimidine