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The anterior pituitary is composed of ___ tissue. Name the six classic hormones whose functions are well known. 1.___ 2. ___ 3. ___ 4. ___ 5. ___ 6.___

endocrine/epithelial; TSH; FSH; LH; ACTH; GH; PRL

TRH, GNRH, CRH, etc., are known as ___ hypothalamic hormones that regulate the function of the ___ pituitary. The hormones are released into capillary beds and carried directly to the pituitary by the ___ ___ ___, located in the ___.

ventral; anterior; hypophyseal portal veins; infundibulum

___ and ___, the posterior pituitary hormones, are synthesized in the ___ and ___ nuclei of the hypothalamus. They are stored in the axon terminals located in the ___ pituitary. Similar to neurotransmitters, a/an ___ ___ in the neuron causes their release.

oxytocin; vasopressin (ADH); supraoptic; paraventicular; posterior; action potential

In negative feedback, the target hormone feeds back to alter the release of the anterior or hypothalamic hormones, thus (increasing or decreasing?) its own release.

decreasing

Give an example of a hormone that has negative feedback to both the anterior pituitary and the ventral hypothalamus.

Cortisol

Prolactin is unique in that the main ventral hypothalamic hormone regulating its secretion, ___, inhibits its release. ___ (hormone_ increases prolactin release. Very high levels of this hormone during pregnancy actually block the effect of prolactin on milk production.

dopamine; estrogen

___ hormones are necessary fot the release of ___ hormone. This is an example of modulation of a hormone by a target hormone of another series.

thyroid; growth

Suckling of an infant causes milk letdown by stimulating what hormone? ___ Changes in osmolarity detected by chemically sensitive neurons in the hypothalamus will alter what hormone's level? ___.

oxytocin; vasopressin (ADH)

Cortisol release is synchronized by the light/dark cycle and has a 24-hour pattern of secretion known as ___ rhythm. Levels are highest at what part of the day?

circadian; early morning

Besides controlling levels of T3 and T4, TSH also promotes ___ of the thyroid gland. T3 and T4 are carried in the bloodstream bound to ___ ___ because they are (hydrophilic or lipophilic?).

growth; carrier proteins; lipophilic

T3 and T4 enter the target cells by ___ and bind to receptors located ______. T3 and T4 are synthesized from ___ and ___.

diffusion; mainly in the nucleus; tyrosine; iodine

Which of the following would be symptoms of hypothyroidism, also known as ___?
lethargy or hyperexcitability? high BMR or low BMR?
high heart rate or low-normal heart rate?
feeling cold or sweating? weight loss or weight gain?

myxedema; lethergy; low BMR; low-normal heart rate; feeling cold; weight gain

Lack of dietary iodine would cause (primary or secondary?) hypothyroidism and the patient would probably get an iodine-deficient ___.

primary; goiter

Graves' disease is the most common cause of primary ___________________. The body secretes _________ __________ ____________, which mimics the action of TSH and thus may cause a ___________ as well as high levels of thyroid hormones.

hyperthyroidism; Thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin (TSI); goiter

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