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cerebrum

this part of the brain is the largest

cerebrum

this part of the brain contains integration centers for receiving and interpreting sensory information
generating and controlling muscle movements
providing mental functions (such as memory, intellect, creativity, and reasoning)

cerebellum

this part of the brain is the second largest part

cerebellum

this part of the brain contains integration centers that coordinate and fine tune voluntary muscle movement.

diencephalon

this part of the brain is the physical center of the brain

diencephalon

this part of the brain contains relay and integration centers for incoming sensory information
integrates nervous system and endocrine system

brain stem

this part of the brain is the trunk of the brain

brain stem

this part of the brain connects parts of the brain to the spinal cord
contains integration centers that regulate visceral activities

brain tissue

THIS is protected in 3 ways:
cranial bones
cranial meninges
cerebral spinal fluid

cranial meninges

this part of brain tissue had 3 membrane layers that surround the brain
it is continuous with the spinal meninges

cranial meninges

this is made up of dura mater, arachnoid mater, and pia mater

dura mater

this is made up of endosteal and meningeal layer

endosteal

this layer of dura mater is the outer layer that forms the inner periosteum of the cranium

meningeal layer

this layer of dura mater is the inner layer that forms the dural sinuses, collects veins located between 2 layers, and collects cerebrospinal fluid and returns it to the blood

arachnoid mater

this layer of cranial meninges is made up of arachnoid membrane and arachnoid trabeculae

arachnoid membrane

this part of arachnoid mater is the epithelial layer

arachnoid trabeculae

this part of arachnoid mater extends across the subarachnoid space to the pia mater

pia mater

this layer of the cranial meninges is the iner layer that holds cerebral blood vessels in place

arachnoid granulations

these are parts of the cranial meninges that are extensions of arachnoid layer into the dural sinuses. It forms an opening for CSF to drain into dural sinuses

dural folds

these are folds of dura mater that extend deep into the brain.
Function:
separate both parts of the brain
anchors and supports the brain in the cranium
contains the dural sinuses that collect CSF and return it to the blood

ventricles

these are a series of interconnecting chambers in the brain that are connected to the central canal of the spinal cord, which contains a choroid plexus

choroid plexus

this is a lining of ependymal cells that secrete CSF

lateral

this ventricle contains 1 and 2
it is located in each cerebral hemisphere
it is the largest ventricle

third

contains 3
located in diencephalon

fourth

contains 4
located in brainstem
connects with cerebral canal of the spinal cord

brain stem

this is the "trunk" of the brain
it connects all parts of the brain to the spinal cord
it contains integration centers that manage autonomic activities

brain stem

this is made up of the medulla oblongata, pons, and midbrain

medulla oblongata

this part of the brain stem is the most inferior part of the brain
it is a continuation of the spinal cord at the foramen magnum
it contains many integration centers for maintaining homeostasis

medulla oblongata

this part of brain stem contains relay stations. reflex centers. and integration centers

relay station

this function of the medulla oblongata contains all ascending and descending spinal tracts that pass through it.
it relays sensory information and motor information between the spinal cord and brain
opens into the 4th ventricle

reflex centers

this function of medulla oblongata divides into two categories: cardiovascular and respiratory

cardiovascular

this reflex center of the medulla oblongata controls the rate and force of the heart contractions

respiratory

this reflex center of the medulla oblongata controls the rhythm of breathing

integration center

this function of medulla oblongata processed sensory and motor commands that innervate the throat, neck, back, and digestive organs.

pons

this part of brain stem is the anterior buldge and is superior to the medulla
it contains relay and integration stations

relay station

this function of the pons relays information between the cerebellum, brain stem, cerebrum, and spinal cord

integration centers

this function of the pons controls sensory and motor controls of the jaw and face.

respiratory centers

this part of the integration centers of the pons modifies the activities of the respiratory center of the medulla

midbrain

this part of the brain stem is the most superior and it connects to the diencephalon
functions are relay station, reflex center, retircular activating system,

relay station

this function of the mid brain controls descending tracts that relay voluntary motor commands from the cerebral cortex to PNS or cerebelllum

reflex center

this function of the midbrain initiates reflex movements of the eyes, head, neck, and trunk in response to visual and auditory stimuli.

reticular activating system

function of midbrain maintains consciousness and awakening by alerting the cerebral cortex of incoming stimuli

cerebellum

this part of the brain contains integration centers that coordinate and fine tune voluntary muscle movements
functions in adjusting postural muscles and fine tuning movement

adjusting postural muscles

this function of cerebellum receives information from proprioceptors and visual and tactile receptors and the inner ear and coordinates rapid, autonomic adjustments that maintain balance and posture

fine tunes movements

this function of cerebellum refines learned movement patterns by:
monitoring motor commands form the cerebral cortex and brain stem
comparing this motor information with propiocentric info
making adjustment to ensure smooth movements

ataxia

this is a disturbance in muscle coordination. it is the result of trauma, stroke, or chemical interference to cerebellum. this causes twiches and a lack of coordination

diencephalon

this is the part of the brain that is the main relay and processing center of the brain
it relays and processes all incoming sensory info and integrates nervous and endocrine system
three parts:hypothalamus, thalamus, epithalamus

epithalamus

this is the roof of the diencephalon and third ventricle that contains a choroid plexus.
this houses the pineal gland

pineal gland

this is an endocrine gland that secretes melatonin

melatonin

this is a hormone that regulates the sleep and wake cycle

thalamus

part of diencephalon that forms the wall of the diencephalon.
this is the final relay station for sensory impulses arriving along ascending tracts of spinal cords

thalamic nuclei

this is a part of the thalamus that filters incoming sensory info and relays it to appropriate regions of the cerebral cortex for further processing

hypothalamus

this part of the diencephalon forms the floor of the diencephalon and regulates cardiovascular and respiratory centers of the pons and medulla
regulates body temperature and controls reflexive responses to emotions as a part of the limbic system
controls concious and unconcious behavior
integrates the nervous and endocrine system

infondibulum

this connects the hypothalamus to the pituitary gland

mamillary bodies

this process of olfactory sensations
it controls reflexes of chewing, licking, and swallowing

cerebrum

this part of the brain is the origin of concious throughts and intellectual functions
it processes sensory info
generates somatic motor commands to skeletal muscles
contains processing centers for receiving and interpreting sensory, generating and controlling muscle movements, providing higher mental functions

cerebrum

this part of the brain is divided into right and left hemisphere.

longitudinal fissure

divides cerebrum into left and right cerebral hemispheres by a deep groove

lobes

each hemisphere of longitudinal fissure is divided into this

gyri

folds in the lobes

sulci

shallow grooves that separate the gyri

cerebrum

this part of the brain is made up of both gray and white matter

white matter

this type of matter makes up most of the cerebrum
it is located deep to the cortex
it consists of myelinated axon fibers
composed of three types of axon fibers (association, commissural, and projection)

association fibers

this type of axon fiber are interconnected areas of a single hemisphere. such as lobes or gyri

commissural fibers

this type of axon fiber interconnect the two hemispheres (corpus callosum and anterior commisure)

projection fibers

this type of axon fiber connects cerebrum with lower brain structures

gray

this type of matter is found in 2 general areas (cerebral cortex and basal nuclei)

cerebral cortext

gray matter that is superficial covering. this is where all high level integration occurs

basal nuclei

this type of gray matter in cerebral hemispheres
coordinates the unconcious skeletal muscles.
repeats patterns of movement
controls stabilizing muscles of the trunk

primary sensory cotex

this part of gray matter receives sensory information from the thalamus
it passes info to other association areas before motor responses are generated

primary motor cortex

this part of gray matter initiates motor impulses to voluntary skeletal mucles

central sulcus

this divides the hemispheres of gray matter into anterior and posterior sections

association areas

these parts of gray matter are located in the various lobes of the cortex

frontal lobes

this lobe contains the primary motor cortex
it controls higher intellectual processes

parietal lobes

this lobe contains the primary sensory cortex
it interprets speech and controls the selection of words to express thought and feelings

occipitial lobes

contains the visual cortex that intreprets visual sensations from the retina of the eye.

temporal lobes

this lobe contains auditory cortex and olfactory cortex

auditory

this cortex of temporal lobe interprets auditory sensations from the ear

olfactory cortex

this cortex of the temporal lobe interprets odor sensations from the nasal cavity

limbic system

this is a functional group of nueli and tracted
located along borders of the cerebrum and diencephalon
influences endocrine system
fucntions;
establishing emotional states
links concious with unconcious
memory storage

motivational system

another name for limbic system
responsible for emotions of fear, pain, rage, pleasure

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