emt ch 7

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69 terms · Emergency! orange book 10th edition

absorption

process by which medications travel through body tissues until they reach the bloodstream

action

therapeutic effect of a medication on the body

activated charcoal

oral medication that binds and adsorbs ingested toxins in the gastrointestinal tract for treatment of some poisonings and medication overdoses. charcoal is ground into a fine powder that provides the greatest possible surface area or binding medications that have been taken by mouth

adsorption

process of binding or sticking to a surace

agonist

medication that causes stimulation of receptors

aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid or ASA)

medication that is an antipyretic (reduces fever) analgesic (reduces pain) anti-inflammatory ( reduces inflammation) and potent inhibitor of platelet aggregation (clumping)

contraindication

conditions that make a particular medication or treatment inappropriate, ex condition in which a medication should not be given because it would not help or may actually harm a patient.
-viagra and nitroglycerin

dose

amount of medication given on the basis of the patient's size and age

EMT-administered medication

EMT directly administers the medication to the patient

enteral medication

enter the body thought the digestive system

epinephrine

medication that increases heart rate and blood pressure but also eases breathing problems by decreasing muscle tone of the bronchiole tree; you may be allowed to help the patient self-administer the medication

hypoglycemia

abnormally low blood glucose level

indications

therapeutic uses for a specific medication

inhalation

breathing into the lungs; medication delivery route

intranasal (IN)

delivery route in which a medication is pushed thought a specialized atomizer device called a mucosal atomizer device (MAD) into the nare

intraosseous (IO)

into the bone; a medication delivery route

Mucosal atomizer device (MAD)

device that is used to change a liquid medication into a spray and pushes it into a nostril

nitroglycerin

medication that increases cardiac perfusion by causing arteries to dilate; you maybe allowed to help the patient self-administer

parenteral medications

medications that enter the body by a route other than the digestive tract, skin, or mucous membranes

per os (PO)

through the mouth; medication delivery route; same as oral

pharmacodynamics

process by which a medication works on the body

pharmacology

study of the properties and effects of medications

polypharmacy

use of multiple medications on a regular basis

solution

liquid mixture that cannot be separated by filtering or allowing the mixture to stand

Which route of medication delivery is frequently used with children?

per rectum (PR)

An oral pain medication is less useful than ________ when pain relief is needed within minutes.

IV pain medication

Which of the following medications is prescribed for chest pain and is often given sublingually as a spray or a tablet?

nitroglycerin

One of the newer delivery systems that come in prescription or OTC forms is:

an adhesive patch

Tablets and capsules are typically taken by mouth and enter the bloodstream through the:

digestive system

When administering nitroglycerin, each spray is equivalent to

one tablet

Which medication can have potentially fatal interactions with nitroglycerin

Viagra

What is the sixth important general step in administering medication?

Document

When administering or assisting in the administration of medication, it is important that you follow six steps. Before beginning, you must

obtain an order from medical direction

Regardless of the method used, epinephrine causes a burning sensation where it is injected. Following the injection, the patient's

heart rate will increase

EMTs are permitted to administer glucose in what form?

gel

Before administering nitroglycerin, it is extremely important to first check the patient'

blood pressure

The medication administered most frequently by EMTs is

oxygen

substance produced by the body (commonly called adrenaline) and a drug produced by pharmaceutical companies that increases pulse rate and blood pressure; the drug of choice for an anaphylactic reaction

epinephrine

A chemical substance that is used to treat or prevent disease or relieve pain

medication

QUiz #1) A 74-year-old woman complains of heaviness in her chest, nausea, and sweating that suddenly began about an hour ago. She is conscious and alert, but anxious. Her blood pressure is 144/84 mm Hg and her heart rate is 110 beats/min. She took two of her prescribed nitroglycerin (0.4-mg tablets) before your arrival but still feels heaviness in her chest. You should:

A)
give her high-flow oxygen, avoid giving her any more nitroglycerin because it may cause a drop in her blood pressure, and transport.
B)
assist her in taking one more of her nitroglycerin tablets, reassess her blood pressure, and contact medical control for further instructions.
C)
transport her at once and wait at least 20 minutes before you consider assisting her with a third dose of her prescribed nitroglycerin.
CORRECT D)
recall that geriatric patients often have slower absorption and elimination times, which may necessitate modification of the dosing of certain drugs.

Quiz #2) A medication with antagonistic properties is one that:

C) blocks receptor sites and prevents other chemicals from attaching to them.

Quiz #3) A 49-year-old male with an extensive cardiac history presents with 2 hours of crushing chest pain and shortness of breath. He is pale and diaphoretic and tells you that he feels like he is going to die. His medications include nitroglycerin, sildenafil (Viagra), and enalapril (Vasotec). His blood pressure is 140/90 mm Hg and his heart rate is 110 beats/min. In addition to administering 100% oxygen, you should:

A)
obtain physician approval to give the nitroglycerin.
B)
place him in a supine position and transport at once.
C)
administer one nitroglycerin and call medical control.
CORRECT D)
ask him if he took his Viagra within the past 24 hours.

Quiz #4You arrive at a residence approximately 20 minutes after a 7-year-old boy, who weighs 22 kg, ingested a bottle of Advil. He is conscious and alert and has stable vital signs. Medical control orders you to administer activated charcoal and oxygen and then transport the child at once. The appropriate maximum dose of activated charcoal for this child is:

A)
11 g.
B)
22 g.
C)
36 g.
CORRECT D)
44 g.

Quiz #5
Activated charcoal is frequently suspended in sorbitol, a complex sugar that:

C
Facilitates movement through the digestive system

Quiz #6When given to patients with cardiac-related chest pain, nitroglycerin:

CORRECT A)
relaxes the walls of the coronary arteries.
B)
increases myocardial contraction force.
C)
increases blood return to the right atrium.
D)
constricts the veins throughout the body.

Quiz #7Which of the following medication routes has the slowest rate of absorption?

CORRECT A)
oral
B)
rectal
C)
inhalation
D)
sublingual

Quiz# 8You are treating a 45-year-old woman who was stung by a hornet and has a rash. She tells you that she is allergic to hornets and has her own epinephrine auto-injector. She also tells you that she takes medication for hypertension. Her breath sounds do not reveal any wheezing, her breathing is unlabored, and her blood pressure is 154/94 mm Hg. What should you do if you are not able to make contact with medical control?

A)
Administer her epinephrine, reassess her condition, and transport her promptly.
B)
Begin immediate transport and request an intercept with a paramedic ambulance.
CORRECT C)
Give her oxygen, transport her to the hospital, and monitor her condition en route.
D)
Give her half the dose of her epinephrine in case her allergic reaction is delayed.

Quiz #9Advil, Nuprin, and Motrin are brand (trade) names for the generic medication:

C)
ibuprofen.

Quiz #10While assisting a paramedic in the attempted resuscitation of a 55-year-old male in cardiac arrest, you should expect the paramedic to:

A)
give the patient nitroglycerin to increase his blood pressure.
CORRECT B)
administer drugs via the IV route to achieve the fastest effect.
C)
give the patient activated charcoal to rule out a drug overdose.
D)
withhold drug therapy until an intraosseous catheter is in place.

QUiz #11 When gathering a patient's medications, you find the following: Isordil, Lasix, Motrin, and Digoxin. Which of these medications can be obtained over-the-counter (OTC)?

B)
Motrin

Quiz #12 The medical term for an extremely low blood glucose level is:

A)
hypoglycemia.

Quiz #13 Which of the following medication routes delivers a drug through the skin over an extended period of time, such as a nitroglycerin or nicotine patch?

A)
sublingual
B)
intraosseous
C)
subcutaneous
CORRECT D)
transcutaneous

Quiz #14 Which of the following is an example of a brand (trade) name of a drug?

CORRECT A)
Tylenol
B)
ibuprofen
C)
furosemide
D)
nitroglycerin

Quiz #15 Which of the following statements regarding glucose is correct?

A)
Glucose is a complex sugar that rapidly absorbs into the bloodstream.
CORRECT B)
Glucose is a simple sugar that is readily absorbed by the bloodstream.
C)
Glucose is given to patients who are suspected of being hyperglycemic.
D)
Glucose is usually administered by the EMT via the intravenous route.

Quiz #16 After taking diphendydramine (Benadryl) for an allergic reaction, a person begins experiencing drowsiness and a dry mouth. These findings are an example of a(n):

CORRECT A)
side effect.
B)
untoward effect.
C)
therapeutic effect.
D)
unpredictable effect.

Quiz #17 Which of the following is the MOST rapidly acting medication administration route?

A)
sublingual (SL)
CORRECT B)
intravenous (IV)
C)
subcutaneous (SC)
D)
intramuscular (IM)

Quiz # 18 An EMT may administer aspirin to a patient if:

A)
the patient is currently experiencing hypotension.
CORRECT B)
authorization from medical control has been obtained.
C)
transport time to the hospital is greater than 30 minutes.
D)
the patient is believed to be experiencing an acute stroke.

Quiz #19 Which of the following is an example of a drug's generic name?

A)
Bayer
B)
Advil
C)
Excedrin
CORRECT D)
aspirin

Quiz #20
Which of the following statements regarding parenteral medications is correct?

A)
Tylenol is an example of a parenteral medication because it is taken orally.
CORRECT B)
Parenteral medications are absorbed more quickly than enteral medications.
C)
Compared to enteral medications, parenteral medications have fewer side effects.
D)
Parenteral medications are absorbed by the body through the digestive system.

Quiz #21.
How is nitroglycerin usually given by the EMT?

A)
orally
B)
inhaled
C)
injected
CORRECT D)
sublingually

Quiz #22Subcutaneous injections deliver the medication:

B between the skin and the muscle

Quiz #23Activated charcoal is an example of a(n):

A suspension

Quiz #24A 37-year-old male is found unconscious in his car. His airway is patent and his respirations are rapid and labored. As you and your partner are assessing and treating the patient, a police officer hands you a medication named Alupent, which he found in the backseat of the patient's car. This medication suggests that the patient has a history of:

A asthma

Quiz #25The __________ of a medication usually dictates the route by which it will be administered.

Bform

Quiz #26In ___________ administration, you are administering medication to yourself or your partner.

Apeer-assisted

Quiz #27Which of the following statements regarding the epinephrine auto-injector is correct?

...A)
The adult auto-injector delivers 0.5 to 1 mg of epinephrine.
B)
The auto-injector delivers epinephrine via the subcutaneous route.
CORRECT C)
The epinephrine auto-injector delivers a preset amount of the drug.
D)
EMTs do not need physician authorization to use the auto-injector.

Quiz #28You are dispatched to a movie theater for a 39-year-old female with signs and symptoms of an allergic reaction. As you are assessing her, she pulls an epinephrine auto-injector out of her purse and hands it to you. After administering 100% oxygen, you should:

B)
contact medical control.

Quiz #29A 31-year-old female is experiencing an acute asthma attack. She is conscious and alert, but in obvious respiratory distress. After assisting her with her prescribed MDI, you should:

C) reassess the patient and document her response to the medication.

Quiz #30The term "pharmacology" is MOST accurately defined as:

...A)
the study of drugs that are produced illegally.
B)
the study of how medications affect the brain.
CORRECT C)
the study of drugs and their actions on the body.
D)
the study of drug excretion from the human body.

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