Palace complex at Knossos (Crete)
this was the Minoan capital city, archaeologists found remains of an advanced and thriving culture. This excavation of Knossos produced much information about the Minoans.
This fortified city could withstand almost any attack, a warrior-king ruled the surrounding villages and farmers, strong rulers controlled the areas around other Mycenaean cities such as Tiryns and Athens. Through the contact of the Minoans the Mycenaeans saw the value of seaborne trade. They adapted the Minoans writing system to the Greek language and decorated vases with Minoan signs.
these people greatly influenced the Mycenaeans.
this was the highest mountain in Greece; the historians believed that the Greek gods lived here.
Battle of Marathon
King Darius of Persia wanted revenge against Athens because 8 years earlier the Athenians had burned down the Persian city of Sardis. The Athenian army defeated the strong Persian force however.
these philosophies developed ways of seeking knowledge and systems of though. They challenged people to think about nature of truth, good, and evil explored such subjects as beauty, justice, and good government.
this was a leading city of ancient Greece famous for its architecture, pottery, and shipbuilding.
this was a fertile region in northeastern Greece bounded by mountains, the most famous of which was Mount Olympus, the legendary home of the major gods of Greek pantheon.
this was a powerful city in Ancient Greece that was a leader in arts, sciences, philosophy, democracy and architecture; largest city and capital of Greece.
Greek city-state that was ruled by an oligarchy, focused on military, used slaves for agriculture, discouraged the arts.
a city-state in central Greece, joined in with Athens to fight Macedonia at the battle of Chaeronea.
this city in Egypt was founded by Alexander the Great; it was the center of commerce and Hellenistic civilization.
a fortified hilltop in an ancient Greek city.
the open space that served as the civic center and market place of ancient Greek cities.
a two-handled jar for the storage and transport or wine, oils, dried fish, and other commodities.
a government in which power is in the hands of a hereditary ruling class or nobility.
virtue and excellence
Greek god of medicine
a humorous form of drama that often include slapstick and satire.
Council of Elders
was made up of 30 older citizens, they proposed laws on which the assembly voted. (Sparta)
Council of Five Hundred
this body was created by Cleisthenes. It proposed laws and counseled the assembly. Council members were chosen by lot, or at random. (Athens)
term for the roughly 200 year period in Greek history that followed the collapse of the Mycenaen civilization in the 12th century BC
"power of the people" or "rule by the people"; form of government that originated in Athens in which political institutions were open to all male citizens rather than being controlled by the wealthy few.
a government in which citizens rule directly rather than through representatives.
a long narrative poem celebrating the deeds of legendary or traditional heroes.
a group of five men who were elected each year and were responsible for the education of the youth.
the knot was attached to a wagon of the legendary King Midas of Phrygia, in the capital, Gordium. Legend claimed that the person who could unite the impossibly intricate knot would rule Asia. Alexander decisively cut through the knot with a sword.
relating to the civilization, language, art, science and literature of the Greek world from the reign of Alexander the Great to the late second century b.c.
in the society of ancient Sparta, a peasant bound to the land.
heavily armed Greek infantrymen who marched and fought in close ranks; most of the recruits were middle-class citizens.
ritual pouring of a liquid on an altar or on the ground to honor gods, heroes, of the dead; wine, water, milk, oil, or honey were used.
the modern name for the script composed of signs and pictures, in which the Mycenaean Greeks kept records on tablets of clay.
a government in which power is in the hands of a single person.
a government in which power is in the hands of a few people - especially one in which rule is based upon wealth.
a sacred shrine where a god or goddess revealed the future through a priest or priestess.
procedure used by the Athenian assembly in 5th century BC to banish an unpopular or potentially dangerous citizen for 10 years, without revoking his citizenship or property rights. Each voter wrote the name of the individual he wanted to exile on an ostrakon, which was then placed in an urn. There had to be at least 6,000 votes against one man.
a broken piece of clay pottery used for writing. In Athens, most of this that was found was used as tablets for inscribing the name of candidates for ostracism.
built by the people of Athens to honor the goddess Athena. The Parthenon was a temple. The Parthenon was a masterpiece of architectural design and craftsmanship, and was not unique in style.
the traditional garment of Greek women; a sleeveless typically ankle-length tunic formed from a single squarish piece of wool/generally worn pinned at the shoulders and belted.
term for the battle formation of Greek hoplites; it consisted of tightly packed rows of hoplites, typically 8 ranks deep. The formation was suited for fighting on level ground but didn't work well in difficult terrain.
a Greek city-state, the fundamental political unit of ancient Greece after about 750 B.C.
Age of Pericles
Pericles dominated the life of Athens from 461 BC to 429 BC, that period is often called this
another name for ceremonies or rites.
they were presented in a trilogy.
in ancient Greece, a powerful individual who gained control of a city-state's government by appealing to the poor for support.
he ruled and lived in the sea, sailors prayed to him for a safe voyage, his wife was a sea nymph, when angry he create whirlpools and tidal waves to harm those who offended him.
he was known as a party-animal because he drank too much wine, he began life being young and handsome, but turned into an old, fat drunk.
after the Mycenaean civilization collapsed, this group of people moved into the war-torn countryside. They spoke a dialect of Greek; they were far less advanced than the Mycenaeans. Historians appear to have temporarily lost the art of writing during the Dorian Age.
author of the Odyssey. These books were the basic texts for the education of the Greeks for hundreds of years. He was the greatest storyteller and blind poet.
developed a legal code based on the idea that all Athenians, rich and poor, were equal under the law. This code dealt with practices as debt slavery, in which debtors worked as slaves to repay their debts.
stated that no citizen should own another citizen, he outlawed debt slavery. He organized all Athenian citizens into four social classes according to their wealth. Only members of the top 3 classes could hold office, but all classes could participate in the Athenian assembly. he also introduced the concept that any citizen could bring charges against wrongdoers.
he was a tyrant who took land from nobles and gave it to the peasants, he reduced the privileges of the nobles.
introduced further reforms. He broke up the power of the nobility by organizing citizens into 10 groups based on where they lived rather than wealth. He increased the power of assembly by allowing all citizens to submit laws for debate and passage. He then crated the council of 500. This body proposed laws and counseled the assembly.
Darius the Great
he was a Persian who wanted revenge on the Greeks during the battle of Marathon so he sent an army to attack Athens; he wanted revenge because 8 years earlier the Athenians has burned the city of Sardis.
King Darius III
was the king of Persia during the time of Alexander. Persia was weak and the satrapies were often in rebellion against him. He lost to Alexander at the battle of Grancius River.
Was the son of Darius. He was determined to defeat the Greeks, so in 480 B.C. he led an army into Greece. The Persians defeated the Greeks who fought bravely at the battle of Thermopylae.
A wise and able statesman lead Athens during much of its golden age. His goal was to have Greek artists and architects create sculptures and buildings to glorify Athens. The Parthenon was at the center of his plan. Was the leader of the Athenians and used the Delian League funds to increase Athens's civic and military greatness. However, he died of the Plague in 429 B.C.
Sought truth through persistent questioning - an approach called the Socratic Method. At 70, he was put on trial b/c enemies accused him of corrupting the minds of the youth. Was convicted, death by poison (hemlock). He left no written works; rather, his writings of his philosophy are contained in the writings of his students, especially Plato.
one of Socrates' students; Set up the Academy, where he taught and wrote his own ideas. Was fascinated by the question of reality. Wrote many discussions of ethics, religion, beauty, and logic, called Dialogues. His most famous work, The Republic. His views on the structure of society, included 3 general classes: Workers, Soldiers, and Philosophers.
Plato's most famous student, he was at the Academy for 20 years. He analyzed all types of government, finding good and bad in both. His focus was on analyzing and classifying things based on Observation and Investigation. His most famous pupil was ALEXANDER THE GREAT. He began tutoring this young prince when he was 13 years old. Opened his own school in Athens called the Lyceum.
ran from Marathon to Athens with the news of Athenians defeat over the Persian force.
was a poet, who Alexander did not capture to be sold into slavery.
was the main sculptor of the Parthenon.
Greek biographer of the first to early second century AD. Author of Parallel Lives which compared famous men of classical Greece and republican Rome.
Greek warships, originating in Corinth.
he was an Athenian historian, actually lived through the Peloponnesian Wars, in writing he attempted to be fait to both sides, showed the need avoid bias.
he is considered the "father of history," stressed the importance of history, author of History of the Persian Wars.
assumed the throne in 359 B.C. and dreamed of conquering Greek city-states. He had a superb arm. When Athens and Thebes joined forces against him, he defeated them at the battle of CHAERONEA. This brought all of Greece under his control. Suspected his own Queen Olympias and his son Alexander of plotting against him. So he divorced his wife and disowned his son. He quickly remarried and started another royal family, the queen bore him a girl. Was assassinated at his daughter's wedding by one of his own bodyguards. Olympias made sure Alexander assumed the throne.
Alexander the Great
Assumed the throne at 20 years old. He was an experienced solder and was ambitious like his father. Began organizing his forces to take on Persia. He won his first victory against the Persians at the GRANCIUS RIVER. After this he went from battle to battle, expanding greatly into Asia Minor, and modern day Turkey. He crossed the mountains of the Hindu Kush into northern India. There his troops for the first time faced soldiers mounted on ELEPHANTS. Alexander never lost a battle; however, his soldiers were tire of the long campaign and refused to go further. They went back, and suddenly he fell to a fever, along with negative effects of Wounds and lots of alcohol and he died. After his death the kingdom was divided into 4 kingdoms. His most lasting achievement was the spread of Greek Culture b/c he created a new age, the HELLENISTIC ERA.
Alexander's best best best friend and lover. She died from a fever and alcohol consumption. Alexander was grief-stricken.
Alexander was able to tame a wild horse named this; he was a legendary horse that Alexander the Great rode.
Director of the Alexandrian Library. He tried to calculate the Earth's true size using geometry.
Compiled a geometry text. He is regarded as the best mathematician in Alexandria. His best known book - ELEMENTS (contained lots of geometry proofs) His work is still the basis for courses in geometry.
Was gifted in both geometry and physics. He explained the law of lever, invented the Archimedes screw, invented the pulley to lift heavy objects. Other scientists used Archimedes' ideas, ultimately building other advances in society.
estimated that the sun was at least 300 times larger than Earth in one of his scientific conclusions.
a ten year war fought between the Mycenaeans and Troy, an independent trading city located in Anatolia. According to legend, a Greek army destroyed Troy because a Trojan prince had kidnapped Helen, the beautiful wife of a Greek king.
a series of wars in the fifth century B.C. in which Greek city-states battled the Persian Empires.
Great Peloponnesian War
a war lasting from 431 B.C. to 404 B.C. in which Athens and its allies were defeated by Sparta and its allies.
Battle of Marathon
Athenian army defeated the strong Persian force. An athlete called Pheidippides ran 26 miles from Marathon to Athens with the news.
Battle of Thermopylae
Darius' son, Xerxes, was determined to defeat the Greeks. Spartans joined in to help the Athenians. Greeks were defeated by the Persians at Thermopylae.
Battle of Salamis
Victory at sea for the Greeks. Themistocles (Athenian commander) ordered everyone to leave for Athens. Themistocles tricked the Persian fleet so they would sail into a narrow channel. The Greek triremes were waiting for them. Persians lost most of their ships in battle.
Battle of Plataea
Persians were defeated by the Spartan Army. Victory on land for the Greeks. General Mardonius was a key Persian leader.
Battle of Chaeronea
in 338 BC, when Athens and Thebes joined forces against Philip, he defeated them at the battle of _____
Battle @ the Granicus River
Alexander won his first victory against the Persians at the Grancius River.
Battle of Gaugamela
Alexander the Great illustrated his dominance here. It is a small village near Nineveh. He launched an attack and ended Persian's power & control.
The Trojan War forms the backdrop for one of Homer's great epic poems. The heroes of this book are warriors: the fierce Greek Achilles and the courageous and noble Hector of Troy.
written by Homer; it is about a man named Odysseus who does not return home from the Trojan war; it is a famous Greek story.
History of the Persian War
written by Herodotus, he went beyond listing the names of rulers or retelling ancient legends; stressed the importance of research, his writings reflected his own views that war was a clear moral victory of Greek love of freedom over Persian tyranny.
History of the Peloponnesian War
written by Thucydides, he had actually lived through the war and vividly described its savagery, although he was an Athenian, he tried to be fair to both sides. He showed the need to avoid bias.
was written by Plato, in his work he continued to describe his "vision" of an ideal government.
Elements of Geometry
written by Plutarch which compared famous men of classical Greece to Republican Rome.
tragedy (Oedipus Rex and Antigone)
tragedy (The Trojan Women)
comedy (Lysistrata and The Birds)